Madagascar Periwinkle – A Potential Eco-Friendly Mosquito Pesticide


Larvicidal efficacy of Catharanthus roseus Linn. (Family: Apocynaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis against Anopheles stephensi Liston

Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Kovendan K et al
Asian Pac J Trop Med
2013 Nov;6(11):847-53
PubMed PMID: 24083578

Investigators at Bharathiar University (Tamil Nadu) and National Taiwan Ocean University investigated the larvicidal activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf extract and Bacillus thuringiensis against the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, an important vector of malaria in Indian cities.

From the Introduction:

“In India, malaria is transmitted by six vector species, in which Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) is responsible in urban areas. Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because they breed in water; thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. Management of disease vector using synthetic chemicals has failed because of resistance, effect on non-target organisms and environmental pollution. On the other hand, the recent public perception against the vector control using synthetic chemicals has shifted the research effort towards the development of environmentally sound and biodegradable agents. In that way, plant extracts including essential oils have attracted much attention to control the vector transmitted diseases.”

Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)
Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) [Source: Wikimedia Commons user: Biswarup Gangulyb]
C. roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is an important medicinal plant; for example, it is the source of two anti-cancer drugs, vincristine and vinblastine. It contains alkaloids known to have hypotensive and antispasmodic properties.

The team found that C. roseus extract and B. thuringiensis both have potential to be used as eco-friendly agents for the control of An. stephensi in vector control programs, and that the combined treatment with the plant extract and bacterial toxin has better larvicidal efficacy against An. stephensi than either agent alone:

“In conclusion, the larvicidal potentiality of the crude extracts of C. roseus and B. thuringiensis was studied in the laboratory as well as field conditions. The C. roseus leaf extract and B. thuringiensis have been shown to be effective mosquito control agents. These results show that these two biological agents could reduce the malarial incidence. It also divulges the presence of active metabolites which are causes of larval mortality. Therefore, the botanicals are one of the best alternatives for chemical insecticides and are also ecofriendly bio-pesticides which create a healthy environment.”

Read the complete article at PubMed.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

My FringeNYC Wish List


“The New York International Fringe Festival (FringeNYC) is the largest multi-arts festival in North America, with more than 200 companies from all over the world performing for 16 days in more than 20 venues.”

I would be happy if I could see just half of these productions:

The Anger in Ernest and Ernestine
The Plinth
Writer: Robert Morgan, Martha Ross, and Leah Cherniak
“Two clowns get married and move into a closet. It’s cute, at first. But then little things become Big Things. And Big Things become EXCRUCIATING. Ernest and Ernestine are trapped. Will Love be enough?”
1h 10m Local Manhattan, NY
VENUE #1: Teatro SEA at the Clemente
SAT 9 @ 2:45 TUE 12 @ 5:30 FRI 15 @ 9:30 SUN 17 @ 7:30 THU 21 @ 3

Bacchae Redux
American Bard Theater Company
Writer: Jack Herholdt, Adapted from Euripides
Director: Michael Heitzler
“Bacchae Redux puts a modern twist on the classic tale of divine vengeance. The gruesome rivalry between the god Dionysus and the mortal king Pentheus serves as both feast and fodder for Dionysus’ infamous female disciples, The Bacchae.”
1h 30m Local Manhattan, NY
VENUE #16: Robert Moss Theater at 440
SAT 9 @ 12:30 TUE 12 @ 7 FRI 15 @ 7 SAT 16 @ 4 TUE 19 @ 4:15

Birds Should Fly Free
AKA Productions
Writer: Alex McFarlane
Director: Veronica Dang
“Polly wants more than a cracker. Megalomania erupts when the line between humans and animals is blurred. Can we get along together or will the law of the jungle prevail? This dark comedy boldly goes where no humanity has gone before.”
1h 30m Local South Salem, NY
VENUE #6: Connelly Theater
SAT 9 @ 2 SUN 10 @ 7 THU 14 @ 9:45 SUN 17 @ 4:15 SAT 23 @ NOON

Breaking the Shakespeare Code
Hey Jonte! Productions, L.L.C.
Writer: John Minigan
Director: Stephen Brotebeck
“A brash, naive young actress approaches a gifted but callous acting instructor to coach her for an audition. Surprising them both, Anna and Curt’s explosive chemistry sparks 16 years of cat and mouse seductions and entanglements.”
1h 30m Local Astoria, NY
TUE 12 @ 9:15 THU 14 @ 2 SAT 16 @ 7 TUE 19 @ 5:30 WED 20 @ 6:15

Campo Maldito
People of Interest
Writer: Bennett Fisher
Director: Jesca Prudencio
“Angry ghosts are disrupting business at a tech startup in San Francisco’s Tenderloin district. When the CEO hires a Santeria priest to purify the office, he gets more than he bargained for. A dark comedy about gentrification and the afterlife.”
1h 0m National San Diego, CA
VENUE #1: Teatro SEA at the Clemente
SAT 16 @ NOON SAT 16 @ 4:30 TUE 19 @ 4:15 THU 21 @ 7 SAT 23 @ 5

CLIVE BARKER’s History of the Devil
Joshua Young
Writer: Clive Barker
Director: Joshua Young
“A deprived and lovelorn Satan misses God and is sick and tired of living in Hell. So he calls a trial seeking re-admittance into Heaven. The witnesses recount Satan’s influence, or just reveal a reflection of humanity’s depravity.”
2h 0m Local Manhattan, NY
VENUE #8: The Theater at the 14th Street Y
SUN 10 @ 9 TUE 12 @ 4 WED 13 @ 9:30 THU 14 @ 8 SUN 17 @ 1:45

Come Thick Night
MAUS Theater
Writer: John Crutchfield
Director: John Crutchfield
“A young woman wakes from a nightmare about killing her father – only to find she’s still in it. MAUS Theater of Berlin presents John Crutchfield’s “gruselkabinett,” a darkly hilarious mash-up of Ingmar Bergman, Elvis, and the Scottish play.”
1h 15m International Berlin, GERMANY
TUE 19 @ 9:45 WED 20 @ 4 FRI 22 @ 4:30 SAT 23 @ 7 SUN 24 @ 2

Milkwood Theater
Writer: Judith Goudsmit
Director: David Riley
“Two marine biologists are at odds during the most important expedition of their career. When a stranded shark refuses to die, things get weird in this physical theatre piece about the nature of ego, love and revenge.”
1h 0m Local Brooklyn, NY
VENUE #8: The Theater at the 14th Street Y
SUN 10 @ 5:30 SUN 17 @ 7 TUE 19 @ 7:30 THU 21 @ 2 SAT 23 @ 8

The Fiery Sword of Justice
Pill Hill Productions
Writer: Lauren Letellier
Director: Kel Haney
“The last thing any corporation wants to hear is … the truth! One businesswoman’s super-heroic compulsion to confront hypocrisy leads her to battle Big Pharma, boozy bosses, and the fractured family fantasies that fueled her fight for Justice.”
0h 55m Local Manhattan, NY
VENUE #3: Abrazo Interno at the Clemente
SAT 9 @ 5:45 WED 13 @ 8 SAT 16 @ 8:45 MON 18 @ 3:45 WED 20 @ 2 FRI 22 @ 5:30

Fire Dance
Loading Dock
Writer: Michael Parsons
Director: Jacob Titus
“Attorney Sean McManus moves in with firefighter brother Nicky to salvage their family – and to pursue old flame Janice. When Janice intrudes into their world, however, cold-hearted Nicky’s passions flare, pitting both brothers in a reckless clash for dominance.”
1h 30m Local Brooklyn, NY
SAT 16 @ NOON SUN 17 @ 3:45 TUE 19 @ 9:45 THU 21 @ 4:45 FRI 22 @ 9:15

Forgetting the Details
Nicole Maxali Productions
Writer: Nicole Maxali
Director: Paul Stein
“Family, Filipinos & Alzheimer’s. Described by Dave Chappelle as “funny, heartwarming & funny again,” this one-woman show will make you laugh, cry & remind you that in the end, it’s not the details that matter.”
1h 15m Local San Francisco, CA
VENUE #15: The White Box at 440 Studios
WED 13 @ 3:45 FRI 15 @ 9:30 SUN 17 @ 7:45 THU 21 @ 2 FRI 22 @ 5:30 SAT 23 @ 3

The Drifting Theatre
Writer: Alaska Reece Vance
Director: Alaska Reece Vance
“Award-winning Appalachian theatre company brings to life the untold story of the changeling boy from A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM. Battling fairy monarchs. Forbidden boundaries. Passionate desires and a planet on the brink. Will he survive Puck’s savage game?”
1h 49m National Elizabethton, TN
VENUE #4: Teatro LATEA at the Clemente
TUE 12 @ 4:15 FRI 15 @ 8:30 SUN 17 @ 8:45 MON 18 @ 2 SAT 23 @ 4

Little Mother
Lust & Liberty
Writer: Katie Green
Director: Paul Markert
“Little Mother is a living silent film for the stage—a dark fairytale featuring subtitled live acting, shadow puppetry, and an original score. A young mother risks confusing fantasy with reality, as she sacrifices everything to support her family.”
1h 0m Local Queens, NY
VENUE #8: The Theater at the 14th Street Y
SUN 10 @ 7:15 SAT 16 @ 10:15 WED 20 @ 5:45 THU 21 @ 9:45 SUN 24 @ NOON

Lizzie Borden Took an Axe
The Covey Theatre Company
Writer: Garrett Heater
Director: Garrett Heater
“Award-winning psychological thriller examines every searing detail of the notorious unsolved double axe murder of a Victorian woman’s father and step-mother. Striving to be the most historically accurate representation of the Borden case, period details punctuate this engrossing mystery.”
2h 0m Local Syracuse, NY
VENUE #4: Teatro LATEA at the Clemente
WED 20 @ 6 THU 21 @ 8:45 FRI 22 @ 2 SAT 23 @ 9:15 SUN 24 @ 2:15

mislabeledilEMMA: No, I Don’t Have Downs Syndrome
Quirky Girl Productions
Writer: Emma McWilliams
Director: Anne Moore
“A quirky girl’s search for identity amidst the confusion of being told she was “disabled.” She faces the issues of discrimination, gender equality, race, religion, and “fitting in” as she tries to understand the Syndrome she was born with spontaneously.”
1h 0m National Los Angeles, CA
VENUE #3: Abrazo Interno at the Clemente
FRI 8 @ 7 MON 11 @ 3:45 FRI 15 @ 4:15 SAT 16 @ 5:15 WED 20 @ 7:30 SAT 23 @ 12:15

Covenant Ballet Theatre of Brooklyn
Writer: Marla Hirokawa, Music by Keith Hall, Craig Brann, Taki Rentaro, Harold Payne, Jake Shimabukuro
Choreographer: Marla A. Hirokawa
“It’s WWII and a Nisei, 2nd generation Japanese American soldier has to overcome bigotry displayed against him and his family by the very country he is fighting to protect. This legacy unfolds in a ballet of love, strength and honor.”
1h 10m Local Brooklyn, NY
VENUE #8: The Theater at the 14th Street Y
SAT 9 @ 3:30* TUE 12 @ 7 WED 13 @ 5:45 FRI 15 @ 6:15 SAT 16 @ 2

The Princess Pyunggang
Bibimbab Theatre
Writer: Sookyung Hwang
Director: Jong Yeoup Lee
Choreographer: Grace (Yu Sun) Kang
“The story of Princess Pyunggang is a Korean ancient tale that tells the unforgettable love between a fool and the princess of Goguryo. This story combines Korean traditional drumming instruments songs and dances to deliver a breathtaking performance.”
1h 30m International Seoul , KOREA
VENUE #13: Sheen Center – THE LORETTO
FRI 8 @ 2:30 MON 11 @ 2 THU 14 @ 9:45 SUN 17 @ 6:30

The Secret – The Spanish Inquisition In Old St. Augustine
Lee Weaver’s Special OPS (One Person Shows)
Writer: Lee Weaver
Director: Lee and Nanette Weaver
“A Finder (Investigative Attorney) who furnishes names of Jews to The Monarchy and The Church, crosses with Pedro Menendez in 1565, discovers Maranos! – posing as Christians to escape persecution. Pirate and Indian attacks, love, hate, life, death, bigotry, betrayal, survival!”
2h 0m National St. Augustine, FL
VENUE #3: Abrazo Interno at the Clemente
WED 13 @ 9:45 SAT 16 @ 2:15 SUN 17 @ 6:15 FRI 22 @ 9:15 SAT 23 @ 2 SUN 24 @ NOON

This is Where We Live
Paperbark Theatre Company
Writer: Vivienne Walshe
Director: Alec Fellows-Bennett
“US premiere, winner of the 2012 Griffin Award. Two teenagers collide like a modern day Orpheus and Eurydice in a dead-end Australian town. A dark, moving comedy infused with the rhythm of beat poetry.”
1h 0m International Sydney, AUSTRALIA
VENUE #14: Sheen Center – THE BLACK BOX
THU 14 @ 7:45 SAT 16 @ 7 MON 18 @ 4:15* THU 21 @ 2 SAT 23 @ 7