Category Archives: Social Progress

Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Togo Share Their Knowledge of Plants Used to Treat Asthma

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Ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat asthma in the maritime region in Togo

Gbekley HE, Katawa G, Karou SD, Anani S, Tchadjobo T, Ameyapoh Y, Batawila K, Simpore J
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2016 Nov 23;14(1):196-212
PubMed Central: PMC5411872

Togo
Togo [Source: Wikimedia Commons]
Investigators from the Université de Lomé and Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni conducted an ethnobotanical survey to document plants used in Togolese traditional medicine to treat asthma in Togo’s southernmost Maritime Region, where the main ethnic groups are the Ewe, Ouatchi, Mina, Fon, and Adja people.

For their study, the team interviewed 121 traditional healers, who use clinical manifestations such as wheezing, coughing, difficulty in speaking, dyspnea, dry cough, sweating, and increased heart rate to diagnose the disease.

Carica_papaya
Carica papaya [Source: Wikimedia Commons, Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen]
Writing in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Gbekley et al. document 98 plant species used in southern Togo to treat asthma, including Carica papaya, Cataranthus roseus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Piper guineense, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globules, and Euphorbia hirta. The team conducted a literature review to assess previous relevant ethnobotanical citations related to asthma, toxicity data, and screening reports for immunomodulatory activities.

From the introduction:

“Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyper-reactivity with symptoms causally related to family history, environmental influences, exposure to viruses and allergens as examples. The high economic burden linked with asthma is associated primarily with health care costs, missed work or school days. The treatment of asthma in the modern medicine is based on the use of beta agonists, leukotriene modifiers and inhaled corticosteroids that allowed an acceptable control of the main symptoms. However, this therapy could not suppress all the symptoms although the better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. On the other hand, the requirement for daily inhalation with glucocorticoids is often a cause for patient discomfort, limiting the use of glucocorticoids in asthma therapy. In addition, the current therapy is not affordable for the patients in developing countries, who rely on the traditional medicine. Therefore, there is a significant need for new medications for the treatment of asthma that are highly efficacious, with low cost, easily managed and with few adverse effects. In the search for new medications for asthma, plants through the traditional medicine are a credible alternative.”

The authors recommend further laboratory screenings to identify specific bioactive molecules that might be responsible for the reported therapeutic activities of these plant-derived medicines, and to investigate optimal dosages as well as possible side effects.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Bhutan Finds Alternative Source of Medicinal Plants to Ease Pressure from Commercial Harvesting

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Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential

Wangchuk P, Namgay K, Gayleg K, Dorji Y
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2016 Jun 24;12(1):28
PubMed Central: PMC4921017

Bhutan’s Ministry of Agriculture and Forests and Ministry of Health conducted an ethnobotanical survey to determine if the Dagala village block (gewog) might serve as an alternative collection site for the state-run Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals, which manufactures plant-based medicines for traditional g.so-ba-rig-pa hospitals in Bhutan.

Writing in the Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Phurpa Wangchuk of James Cook University and co-authors note that the ecological pressure on medicinal plants in Bhutan has increased significantly over recent years, particularly in Lingzhi Gewog, the primary source of plants and other raw materials for medical formulations manufactured for the country’s network of traditional medicine providers:

“[Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals (MSP)] manufactures more than 100 different polyingredient medicinal formulations and supplies them to the traditional medicine hospitals and units across the country. The polyingredient medicinal formulations are prepared into different dosage forms as powder, capsules, pills, tablets, ointments and decoctions. The raw materials (mostly medicinal plants) for preparing these formulations are either collected within Bhutan (mostly from Lingzhi region) or imported from India. The medicinal plants, which grow in the higher elevation of alpine mountains (>2000 meters above sea level) including that from Lingzhi region, are known as the High Altitude Medicinal Plants (HAMP) and the others that grow in the temperate and tropical environment are called the Low Altitude Medicinal Plants (LAMP). Due to persistent collections of HAMP from Lingzhi region for more than 48 years, the pressure on medicinal plants has increased significantly over the recent years. Therefore, identifying an alternative medicinal plants collection site for HAMP have been one of the MSP’s top priority.”

Bhutanese g.so-ba-rig-pa medicine is with traditional Tibetan medicine one of the oldest surviving medical traditions and is in wide practice across the world, so this case study is potentially of significance not only for Bhutan but also for the other countries that use these medicinal plants.

The team chose Dagala Gewog to study because it shares several agro-climatic features with Lingzhi Gewog and has never had an ethnobotanical survey (though there were abundant anecdotal claims about medicinal lush plant growth in the region), and because the local people could potentially benefit from a sustainable collection program.

Berberis aristata
Berberis aristata [Photo: Buddhika.jm, Wikimedia Commons]
Working with a local Byjop guide, the team identified 100 medicinal plant species from Dagala Gewog, 16 of which were abundant in the region and in current use by MSP: Aconitum laciniatum, Berberis aristata, Bistorta macrophylla, Euphorbia wallichii, Gentiana algida, Geranium refractum, Juniperus pseudosabina, Juniperus squamata, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Plantago depressa, Potentilla arbuscula, Rheum australe, Rhododendron anthopogon, Rhododendron glaucophyllum, Rhododendron setosum, and Taraxacum officinale.

“These 16 species that are found in abundance have the economic potential since MSP require them in bulk quantities to prepare g.so-ba-rig-pa medicines. Since g.so-ba-rig-pa is also practiced across the globe, these medicinal plants could be in demand by other countries including India, Nepal, Mongolia, Tibet and Switzerland (PADMA company based on Tibetan medicine). However, the first priority would be to focus on meeting the domestic demand of MSP for these medicinal plants. MSP currently engage yak herders for collecting medicinal plants from Lingzhi. As a result of medicinal plants collection program, the Lingzhip (local inhabitants of Lingzhi region) have improved their socio-economic status and contributed significantly to the realization of country’s ‘Gross National Happiness’ (GNH) indices including preservation of traditional medical knowledge, conservation of environment and socio-economic prosperity.”

The team concluded that it was feasible to establish an alternative medicinal-plant collection center in Dagala Gewog:

“Establishing an alternative HAMP collection centre in Dagala Gewog has multi-pronged benefits. The tangible and immediate benefits would include: a) Dagala communities could generate decent income through medicinal plants collection program and elevate their socio-economic status, b) MSP could obtain sustainable supply of HAMP to meet the demand of g.so-ba-rig-pa medicine production, c) training on sustainable collection of HAMP (always provided by MSP as a package of collection program) would educate Dagala Jops on the values, protection and preservation of plants, d) establishing this alternative collection center would ease the pressure on Lingzhi HAMP and could enable MSP to collect the plants on a rotational basis, and e) since Dagala region is known for eco-tourism, having the medicinal plants collection centre and the herb garden would enhance the in-flow of eco-tourists especially the botanists and the herbalists.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Ethnopharmacological Preparations of Monpa People in Arunachal Pradesh

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First Report on the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Medicinal Plants by Monpa Tribe from the Zemithang Region of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India

Chakraborty T, Saha S, Bisht NS
Plants (Basel). 2017 Mar 2;6(1)
PubMed Central: PMC5371772

Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India
Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India [Source: Filpro, Wikimedia Commons]
Researchers at Jiwaji University, University of Freiburg, Forest Research Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education conducted a study to document, for the first time, ethnopharmacological preparations of ethnomedicines among the Monpa people in the Zemithang region of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Their study is published in the open-access journal Plants.

From the introduction:

“Before coming to our research objectives, we would like to briefly mention the state of the art of ethnopharmacological research in the Himalayas. There are plenty of research works on the listing of the traditional uses of medicinal plants from the Himalayas. A search with the terms “medicinal plants * Himalayas” yielded 163 peer-reviewed articles listed in ISI Web of Knowledge on 20 February 2017. However, out of those 163 articles, 19 articles were found from the Eastern Himalayas and only two were on the Monpa tribe…. Haridasan et al., in the seminal works produced in 1998 and 1990, comprehensively listed medicinal and edible plants of the Monpa tribe and other tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. Recently, Namsa et al. (2011) listed 50 plant species and recorded their ethnobotanical uses among people of the Monpa tribe at the southern range of their habitation (i.e., Kalaktang circle of West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh). These two publications provided general descriptions of the plants, traditional uses of the plants to cure certain diseases, and traditional ways of consumption of these plants or plant parts (e.g., pills, syrups, decoctions, etc.). Nevertheless, no ethnopharmacological studies have yet reported how, and in what proportion, multiple plant parts from different species can be used to prepare specific ethnomedicines for healing of diseases among the Monpa tribes or any other tribes of the Eastern Himalayas as per our literature research as of 20 February 2017. In addition, the traditional knowledges of the people of the Monpa tribe residing at their northern habitation range (i.e., Zemithang circle of Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh) are still not adequately documented due to the remoteness of the location.”

Aconitum ferox
Aconitum ferox [Source: Wikimedia Commons, Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen]
The team describe 24 ethnomedicines prepared by traditional healers based on 53 plant species, including Aconitum ferox, Bergenia stracheyi, Campanula latifolia, Fragaria nubicola, Gentiana depressa, Hedychium spicatum, Iris clarkei, Leontopodium himalayanam, Meconopsis grandis, Onopordum acanthium, Panax pseudoginseng, Rheum australe, Swertia chirayita, Tanacetum gracile, and Vaccinium nummularia.

In their conclusions, the authors urge further scientific work based on the know-how of Monpa healers, with an eye toward conservation of their traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge:

“We have documented for the first time the vernacular names combined with ethnopharmacological preparations of ethnomedicines among Monpa tribes from the Zemithang region of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Past studies on ethnobotany in the Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, had listed uses of medicinal plants, however, we found that traditional healers use diverse species and plant parts in specific proportions for drug preparations. Our study illustrates the diversity of medicinal drug preparations and traditional knowledge that has passed through generation after generation of Monpa people. The ethnopharmacological documentation presented in this study should motivate researchers to carry out further scientific work on pharmacology, bioprospecting, and the cultivation of medicinal plants for the socioeconomic development in the region. Under ongoing warming of the Himalayas and mass migration of people from the mountain areas to cities, our study also highlights the need to document the traditional knowledge regarding the use of local flora and to develop strategies to conserve them before the traditional knowledges are lost or forgotten.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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In Slovenia, A Tradition of Using Media to Advance Ethnomedicinal Knowledge

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Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia

Lumpert M, Kreft S
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Feb 23;13(1):16
PubMed Central: PMC5324297

Researchers from the University of Ljubljana conducted an ethnobotanical study in two remote Slovenian villages, Karst and Gorjanci.

Writing in the Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Mateja Lumpert and Samo Kreft note that only a few rigorous ethnobotanical studies have been conducted in Slovenia:

“The use of plants has been scarcely investigated in Slovenia, and only a few ethnobotanical studies have been conducted. The Karst region is a limestone plateau in southwestern Slovenia that continues on the Italian side of the border. The Italian part of the Karst region, also known as Trieste Karst, was included in an ethnobotanical study of the Venezia Giulia region in 1988, and a list of 59 plants that were used in Trieste Karst was reported. Guštin Grilanc investigated the folk herbalist tradition in both the Italian and Slovenian parts of the Karst region and published a list of 124 plants used for healing, food, toys, superstitions, and folk traditions with short descriptions; however, the methodology of the work was not described, and only a detailed list of informants was given. Gorjanci is a mountain range in southeastern Slovenia that runs southwest to northeast along the Croatian border. From 1950 to 1983, ethnographic researchers collected testimonials on the natural and magical treatment of the people in Dolenjska and Bela Krajina, two regions where Gorjanci is located. Makarovič analyzed the collected testimonials and concluded that the ethnographers’ notes contained random and generalized data on knowledge about natural medicines and magical practices; those data were collected unsystematically and were incomplete. As a result, this analysis provided a very rough estimation of the use of medicinal plants.”

Working with local herbalists, Lumpert and Kreft documented 78 medicinal plants used in Karst and 82 in Gorjanci.

Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra [Photo: Willow, Wikimedia Commons]
Sambucus nigra was the most frequently reported plant in both villages. Other frequently reported plants were Rosa spp., Salvia officinalis, Thymus serpyllum, Mentha spp., Melissa officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla, and Tilia spp. in Karst and Achillea millefolium, Tilia spp., Matricaria chamomilla, Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum, Rosa spp., Centaurium spp., and Vaccinium myrtillus in Gorjanci.

The authors note a long tradition in Slovenia of herbalists using written sources to advance ethnomedicinal knowledge:

Title page of Tabernaemontanus "Neuw Vollkommentlich Kreuterbuch", 1625
Title page of Tabernaemontanus “Neuw Vollkommentlich Kreuterbuch”, 1625 [Source: Wikimedia Commons]

“In Slovenia, knowledge about plants is transmitted from generation to generation and is also influenced by written sources. The beginning of this practice goes back to Comments of Dioscorides written by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. He lived and worked from 1540 to 1554 in Gorica, a town in northeastern Italy populated by a Slovene-speaking minority, and he was the first to describe plants of Slovenian flora. In the 18th and 19th centuries, folk healers in Slovenian ethnic territory used folk medicine manuscripts, which were translations of mostly German medicine and veterinary books, especially herbals (or Kräuterbücher) from the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century. Most manuscripts were translations of Gart der Gesundheit (1485), Kreutterbuch by Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1590), Neu Vollkommenes Kräuter-Buch by Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1678), Vollständiges Kräuterbuch by Adam Lonicer (1557), and Neu Vollkomentlich Kreuterbuch by Jakob Tabernaemontanus (1613). Later, the translated books were manually transcribed many times, and the transcribers added their own observations to the manuscripts. In the second half of the 19th century, the first original (non-translated) Slovenian works about medicinal plants were published, and manuals for the wild collection, drying and use of Slovenian medicinal plants were issued later. Throughout the 20th century, there was steady growth of published books about medicinal plants; some of them were original Slovenian works, and some were translations from foreign authors; most were written by pharmacists and only some by folk healers.”

With an important and widespread practice of plant collection combined with a nearly 100% literacy rate, Slovenia offers a rare, perhaps unique, perspective on the evolution of ethnomedicinal knowledge in literate societies, where books, television, journals, and the internet join oral transmission between individuals, potentially to bring very rapid cultural change.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Ethnobotanical Heritage of the Shuar People

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Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

Ballesteros JL, Bracco F, Cerna M, Vita Finzi P, Vidari G
Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:9105746
PubMed Central: PMC5198176

Researchers from Universidad Politécnica Salesiana and the University of Pavia conducted an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by indigenous people near the Kutukú Scientific Station, which is located on the Kutukú mountain range in the Morona-Santiago province of southeast Ecuador.

About seven indigenous communities live in the study area, all of them members of the Shuar ethnic group:

“The ethnobotanical study performed in this work gave us a real panorama about the natural remedies used by the inhabitants in the territory of the Kutukú Scientific Station of the Morona canton of the province of Morona-Santiago, south of Ecuador. This research was realized with “Shuar” community, which is very different from the “Achuar” community cited in the article by Giovannini, even the geographical location and the altitude are different.”

Acmella ciliata
Acmella ciliata [Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Ks.mini]
With guidance from the Shuar, the team identified recorded therapeutic uses of 131 medicinal plants, including Acmella ciliata, Byrsonima arthropoda, Citharexylum poeppigii, Croton lechleri, Ilex guayusa, Siparuna harlingii, Verbena litoralis, and Virola pavonis. Most of the plants are native to the region. Therapeutic uses included aids for wound healing, “mal aire,” diarrhea, nourishment, kidney and bladder affections, fever, and rheumatism.

The authors note the urgency to preserve the cultural patrimony of the Shuar through sustainable research and development:

“In this work we analyzed the ethnobotanical patrimony of Kutukú Scientific Station, located on the Kutukú mountain range in the Morona-Santiago province, Ecuador. By doing that, we intended to safeguard the popular knowledge concerning plants and to produce a database of plant uses and advantages. This data could be used by the citizens themselves and could be the base for future actions in programs of scientific investigations, environmental education, social awareness, and natural resources exploitation, as well as the start point of touristic attraction based on the sustainable development of the territory.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Antimalarial Plants of Eastern Uttar Pradesh

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Ethnobotanical perspective of antimalarial plants: traditional knowledge based study

Qayum A, Arya R, Lynn AM
BMC Res Notes. 2016 Feb 4;9:67
PubMed Central: PMC4743172

Uttar Pradesh in India
Uttar Pradesh in India [Source: Wikimedia Commons, By Filpro]
Investigators from Jawaharlal Nehru University and Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy conducted an ethnobotanical study to find plants with antimalarial activities used by local people in the Gorakhpur, Kushinagar, and Maharajganj districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

The team documented 51 plants used for the treatment of malaria, including Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, and Swertia chirata.

Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica) [Photo: Wikimedia Commons, By ShineB]
The authors note that many important medicinal plants in the area are becoming rare and some of them are critically endangered because of overexploitation, loss of water reservoirs, and changes in land use.

From the conclusion:

“The work carried out revealed the plants recorded are highly valuable for antimalarial application and in future, bio-prospecting projects can be further initiated for sustainable harvesting towards developing antimalarial drug for curing malaria at large. It would help researchers to find out suitable lead molecules with antimalarial activity towards drug discovery. The study provides ample ground to believe that the traditional medicinal system practice using native medicinal plants is alive and well functioning in the selected area. Many communities use antimalarial plant parts and whole plant for their primary healthcare. It is primarily due to lack of modern medicines, medications, self-reliance on herbs, poor economic condition and more importantly faiths in TK System. The treatment of malaria with plants and plant parts causes little or no side effects and also it is very cheap and affordable. Some plants are nearly extinct in the region, the reason being change in land use pattern and shrinking of water bodies along with over harvesting of herbs. The bio-depletion of these antimalarial plants is due to the burgeoning population and unscientific management of the natural resources.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Wild Leafy Vegetables Used by Meitei, Naga, Kuki, and Pangal People of Manipur, Northeast India

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Assessment of wild leafy vegetables traditionally consumed by the ethnic communities of Manipur, northeast India

Konsam S, Thongam B, Handique AK
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2016 Jan 29;12:9
PubMed Central: PMC4731935

Investigators from the Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development and Gauhati University conducted surveys at markets throughout the state of Manipur in northeastern India to document wild edible vegetables being used by indigenous communities for nutritive and therapeutic purposes.

About the study area:

Manipur in Northeastern India
Manipur in Northeastern India [Map: By Filpro (File:India grey.svg) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons]

“…Manipur, one of the seven states of Northeast India that forms an integral part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot… is rich in both cultural and biological diversity, having populated by diverse ethnic, linguistic and religious groups including many indigenous tribes. Racially, Manipuri people are unique and have features similar to Southeast Asian. The state has four major ethnic communities – Meitei (Hindu), Naga and Kuki (Tribal communities) and Pangal (Muslim). The Meiteis are the dominant non-tribal community constituting 92% of the valley area along with the Pangal (minority group), and the five hill districts are inhabited by about 34 ethnic tribes representing 30% of the state population. They practice distinct culture and tradition and have different socio-economic features. Agriculture is the single largest occupation in Manipur and the mainstay of the state’s economy. The trade of wild vegetables provides an alternative source of income and is mainly done by women. Forests account for 67% of the total land area of this state. The tribal communities collect a large variety of edible and other useful plants from the forest and surrounding wasteland. They also sell a large variety of such plants in the local market.

Ima Keithel
Ima Keithel [Photo: By PP Yoonus (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons]
The famous “Ima Keithel” (meaning “Mother’s market”) of Manipur which sells vegetables and other household items are exclusively run and controlled by women signifying their role in the society both socio-cultural and economically.”

Through interviews with indigenous plant collectors and sellers, the team documented 68 wild edible vegetables used for nutritive and therapeutic purposes, which they then assessed regarding proper exploitation, conservation, and sustainable management.

Zanthoxylum budrunga
Zanthoxylum budrunga [Photo: By Basu, Baman Das; Kirtikar, Kanhoba Ranchoddas [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons]
Among the most widely used species were Euryale ferox, Chimonobambusa callosa, Ipomoea aquatica, Oenanthe javanica, Alocasia cucullata, Neptunia oleracea, Houttuynia cordata, Hedychium coronarium, Alpinia nigra, Amomum aromaticum, Eryngium foetidum, Passiflora edulis, Ficus benghalensis, and Zanthoxylum budrunga. Several species were found to be consumed mainly by the tribal communities and rarely known to other communities. These included Z. budrunga, P. edulis, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Spilanthes paniculata, Cissus javanica, Elatostema lineolatum, Plantago erosa, Litsea cubeba, Zehneria scabra, Cyclanthera pedata, Piper pedicellatum, Solanum nigrum, Eurya acuminate, Solanum betaceum, Allium chinense, Heteropanax sp., Dysoxylum gobara, Diplanzium esculantum, Etlingera linguiformis, Derris wallichii, and Phrynium placentarium.

The authors note:

“Many more such unexplored leafy vegetables are believed to exist. There is a need for exploitation of such unexplored resources given the storehouse of traditional knowledge the tribal possessed. It will provide a way for screening newer and alternative source of nutrition.

“The present finding will be useful in the evaluation of nutritional components of high priority species for their integration into the agricultural system based on nutritive values. Further, assessing their cultivable potential and working towards developing agro-techniques can bring more potential species under domestication for conservation through sustainable use. Moreover, it will also help to understand their role in future food and nutritional security of the state. Therefore, documentation and prioritization would ensure that the highest priority species is preserved for use in crop improvement programs and contribute towards achieving the goal of food and nutritional security.”

This study – the first integrated assessment of wild leafy vegetables to be done in the region – provides a methodology to help select and preserve high-priority species for new alternative sources of nutrition.

“According to the integrated assessment, 57 out of 68 (84%) species have good to high value. These high scoring species exhibit the traits of high-quality vegetables, such as taste, appropriate edible parts, multiple edible parts, availability, abundance, easily cultivable, simple to collect and process, and so on. To increase dietary diversity and livelihood sustenance of local people, complimentary studies and further ethnobotanical studies will be conducted. The traditional knowledge and understanding of wild food plants may serve as baseline data for future research and development activities and further biotechnological intervention. A detailed evaluation of nutritional components of the potential species should be conducted for integration into the agricultural system based on their nutritive values and for the conservation of elite germplasm. Further studies should also be done to assess their cultivable potential and work towards developing propagation and agro-techniques to bring more potential wild species under domestication for sustainable utilization of natural resources. Furthermore, proper value chain development for marketing and value-addition of selected species can facilitate enough income to native communities. Documentation and conservation of highest priority species would ensure they are available for use in genetic improvements of crop species as a contribution towards food and nutritional security. Therefore, communities should engage in sustainable management and preservation of traditional knowledge of these multi-valued resources for the well-being local communities.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Medicinal Plants Used Around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda

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Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda

Tugume P, Kakudidi EK, Buyinza M, Namaalwa J, Kamatenesi M, Mucunguzi P, Kalema J.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2016 Jan 13;12:5
PubMed Central: PMC4712608

Investigators from Makerere University conducted an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in 14 villages adjacent to Mabira Central Forest Reserve in Central Uganda, an area about 20 km north of Lake Victoria shoreline immediately to the west of Victoria Nile.

More about the study area:

“The forest reserve occupies gently undulating landscape characterised by numerous flat-topped hills (relics of the ancient African peneplain), and wide shallow valleys…

“Commercial use of the forest began when some parts were harvested in the early 1900’s and until 1988, intensive coffee/banana agricultural encroachment badly damaged parts of the forest. About 21% and 26% of the reserve have been designated as strict nature reserve and buffer zone respectively and the forest in these areas is recovering following extensive plantings of native tree species.

“The human population living in the forest enclaves was approximately 825,000 with a density of 200–230 people per Km-2. The local people are mainly of the Bantu ethnic group of the following tribes; Baganda, Banyarwanda, Basoga, Bagisu, Bakiga, Banyankole, Bagwere and Batoro.

“The reserve has tea and sugarcane plantations around. Some local people reside in settlements for labourers on the tea and sugarcane estates. The extent of growing cash crops other than tea and sugar cane is limited by scarcity of land. However locals are engaged in cultivation of food crops mainly for subsistence consumption like maize, beans, bananas, ground nuts, sweet potatoes and vegetables. Livestock rearing is limited to a few households.”

The team documented 190 plant species used in the treatment of various health conditions. The ten most important medicinal plant species were Vernonia amygdalina, Mormodica feotida, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana, Piptadeniastrum africana, Erythrina abyssinica, Albizia corriaria, Spathodea campanulata, Mondia whitei, and Alstonia boonei.

Vernonia amygdalina
Vernonia amygdalina [Photo: By Kwameghana (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons]
Vernonia amygdalina was found to be an especially important species, with a fidelity level of 100% and ranking highest in the treatment of malaria:

“Its leaf extract has been confirmed for having good anti-malarial effects and through in vitro studies. Vernonia amygdalina contains steroid glycosides, sesquiterpene and lactones which are active against Plasmodium falciparum. This species has also been found to be clinically effective for the treatment of malaria patients. In human trials, extracts of Vernonia amygdalina reduced parastaemia by 32%. Although Vernonia amygdalina is effective for malaria treatment, it can induce labour in pregnant women thus causing miscarriages and therefore should be avoided by them. Species with high fidelity level such as Vernonia amygdalina for malaria and Erythrina abyssinica for vomiting indicates that these species two were considered of great cultural significance. Erythrina abyssinica too has a wide range of use varying from treatment of malaria, syphilis, tuberculosis to amoebiasis in Uganda. In Kenya E. abyssinica is used to treat mumps, respiratory tract infections in Mexico and febrile illness in Ethiopia. Its usage for different ailments is possibly due to a wide range of bioactive compounds.”

In their conclusion, the authors found that “the diversity of medicinal plant species used and the associated indigenous knowledge are of great value to the local community and their conservation and preservation is paramount.”

“The study shows that [Mabira Central Forest Reserve] habours a wide diversity of plant species used as remedies for several ailments. Such plants are very useful especially to people who cannot afford modern medical care and in cases where access to modern heath facilities is not easy. Knowledge and use of herbal medicine for treatment of various ailments among the local people is still part of their life and culture and this calls for preservation of the integrity of the forest and indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine use. The documented plants have potential of being used in drug development.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used in Turkey’s Afyonkarahisar Province

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Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in Afyonkarahisar-Turkey

Arı S, Temel M, Kargıoğlu M, Konuk M
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015 Dec 23;11:84
PubMed Central: PMC4690277

Researchers from Afyon Kocatepe University and Üsküdar University conducted an ethnobotanical study to show uses of wild plants associated with medicinal, food, fodder, and household goods within the boundaries of Afyonkarahisar province in the Aegean region of Turkey:

“Afyonkarahisar located at the intersection of roads and phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Iran-Turan, and Euro-Siberian) has more than 2500 plant species.”

The team recorded and collected 130 plant taxa used for medicinal, food, fodder, household goods, dyes, handicrafts, and religious purposes.

Urtica dioica
Urtica dioica (Photo: WAH)

Species used for medicinal purposes included Achillea millefolium, Agrostemma githago, Amaranthus retroflexus, Anchusa azurea, Bellis perennis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chelidonium majus, Crataegus monogyna, Dianthus zonatus, Ficus carica, Dracunculus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, Melissa officinalis, Mentha longifolia, Morus alba, Origanum vulgare, Papaver dubium, Peganum harmala, Plantago major, Rosa canina, Salix alba, Thymus spp., Tribulus terrestris, and Urtica dioica.

The authors note that the rich traditional ethnobotanical knowledge of the region is in decline:

“Because villagers are generally migrating to big cities and benefiting from the facilities of modern medicine, the heritage of traditional ethnobotanical knowledges is decreasing dramatically. Although this relieve[s] some of the pressures on some plant species, documenting and [analyzing] the indigenous wild plants’ ethnobotanical usages through ethnobotanical studies is still important for the conservation of traditional ethnobotanical knowledge.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Hold Democratic Senators Accountable for Their Votes on Trump’s Cabinet

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Here are the Democratic members of committees responsible for approving or denying Donald Trump’s cabinet. I will record their final roll call votes here, so they can be held accountable.

Updated 27 April 2017

Secretary of Agriculture: Trump nominee – Sonny Perdue (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry
Democratic members (10)
Debbie Stabenow (Michigan) – yes
Patrick Leahy (Vermont) – yes
Sherrod Brown (Ohio) – yes
Amy Klobuchar (Minnesota) – yes
Michael Bennet (Colorado) – yes
Kirsten Gillibrand (New York) – no
Joe Donnelly (Indiana) – yes
Heidi Heitkamp (North Dakota) – yes
Robert Casey (Pennsylvania) – yes
Chris Van Hollen (Maryland) – yes

Secretary of Defense: Trump nominee – James Mattis (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Armed Services
Democratic members (12)
Jack Reed (Rhode Island) – yes
Bill Nelson (Florida) – yes
Claire McCaskill (Missouri) – yes
Jeanne Shaheen (New Hampshire) – yes
Kirsten Gillibrand (New York)  – no
Richard Blumenthal (Connecticut) – yes
Joe Donnelly (Indiana) – yes
Mazie Hirono (Hawaii)  – yes
Tim Kaine (Virginia) – yes
Martin Heinrich (New Mexico) – yes
Elizabeth Warren (Massachusetts) – yes
Gary Peters (Michigan) – yes

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: Trump nominee – Ben Carson (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
Democratic members (11)
Sherrod Brown (Ohio) – yes
Jack Reed (Rhode Island) – no
Robert Menendez (New Jersey) – no
Jon Tester (Montana) – yes
Mark Warner (Virginia) – no
Elizabeth Warren (Massachusetts) – no
Heidi Heitkamp (North Dakota) – yes
Joe Donnelly (Indiana) – yes
Brian Schatz (Hawaii) – no
Chris Van Hollen (Maryland) – no
Catherine Cortez Masto (Nevada) – no

Secretary of Transportation: Trump nominee – Elaine Chao (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Commerce, Science and Transportation
Democratic members (13)
Bill Nelson (Florida) – yes
Maria Cantwell (Washington) – yes
Amy Klobuchar (Minnesota) – yes
Richard Blumenthal (Connecticut) – yes
Brian Schatz (Hawaii) – yes
Edward Markey (Massachusetts) – yes
Cory Booker (New Jersey) – no
Tom Udall (New Mexico) – yes
Gary Peters (Michigan) – yes
Tammy Baldwin (Wisconsin) – yes
Tammy Duckworth (Illinois) – yes
Maggie Hassan (New Hampshire) – yes
Catherine Cortez Masto (Nevada) – yes

Secretary of Commerce: Trump nominee – Wilbur Ross (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Commerce, Science and Transportation
Democratic members (13)
Bill Nelson (Florida) – yes
Maria Cantwell (Washington) – no
Amy Klobuchar (Minnesota)  – yes
Richard Blumenthal (Connecticut) – no
Brian Schatz (Hawaii) – yes
Edward Markey (Massachusetts) – no
Cory Booker (New Jersey) – no
Tom Udall (New Mexico) – no
Gary Peters (Michigan) – no
Tammy Baldwin (Wisconsin) – no
Tammy Duckworth (Illinois) – yes
Maggie Hassan (New Hampshire) – yes
Catherine Cortez Masto (Nevada) – yes

Secretary of Energy: Trump nominee – Rick Perry (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Energy and Natural Resources
Democratic members (9)
Maria Cantwell (Washington) – no
Ron Wyden (Oregon) – no
Debbie Stabenow (Michigan) – yes
Al Franken (Minnesota) – no
Joe Manchin (West Virginia) – yes
Martin Heinrich (New Mexico) – no
Mazie Hirono (Hawaii) – no
Tammy Duckworth (Illinois) – no
Catherine Cortez Masto (Nevada) – yes

Secretary of Interior: Trump nominee – Ryan Zinke (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Energy and Natural Resources
Democratic members (11)
Maria Cantwell (Washington) – no
Ron Wyden (Oregon) – yes
Bernard Sanders (Vermont) – no
Debbie Stabenow (Michigan) – no
Al Franken (Minnesota) – no
Joe Manchin (West Virginia) – yes
Martin Heinrich (New Mexico) – yes
Mazie Hirono (Hawaii) – no
Angus King (Maine) – yes
Tammy Duckworth (Illinois) – no
Catherine Cortez Masto (Nevada) – yes

Secretary of Treasury: Trump nominee – Steve Mnuchin (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Finance
Democratic members (12)
Ron Wyden (Oregon) – no
Debbie Stabenow (Michigan) – no
Maria Cantwell (Washington) – no
Bill Nelson (Florida) – no
Robert Menendez (New Jersey) – no
Thomas Carper (Delaware) – no
Benjamin Cardin (Maryland) – no
Sherrod Brown (Ohio) – no
Michael Bennet (Colorado) – no
Robert Casey (Pennsylvania) – no
Mark Warner (Virginia) – no
Claire McCaskill (Missouri) – no

Secretary of State: Trump nominee – Rex Tillerson (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Foreign Relations
Democratic members (9)
Bob Menendez (New Jersey) – no
Jeanne Shaheen (New Hampshire) – no
Christopher Coons (Delaware) – not voting
Tom Udall (New Mexico) – no
Chris Murphy (Connecticut) – no
Tim Kaine (Virginia) – no
Edward J. Markey (Massachusetts) – no
Jeff Merkley (Oregon) – no
Cory Booker (New Jersey) – no

Secretary of Health and Human Services: Trump nominee – Tom Price (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
Democratic members (11)
Patty Murray (Washington) – no
Bernard Sanders (Vermont) – no
Robert Casey (Pennsylvania) – no
Al Franken (Minnesota) – no
Michael Bennet (Colorado) – no
Sheldon Whitehouse (Rhode Island) – no
Tammy Baldwin (Wisconsin) – no
Christopher Murphy (Connecticut) – no
Elizabeth Warren (Massachusetts) – no
Tim Kaine (Virginia) – no
Maggie Hassan (New Hampshire) – no

Secretary of Education: Trump nominee – Betsy DeVos (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
Democratic members (11)
Patty Murray (Washington) – no
Bernard Sanders (Vermont) – no
Robert Casey (Pennsylvania) – no
Al Franken (Minnesota) – no
Michael Bennet (Colorado) – no
Sheldon Whitehouse (Rhode Island) – no
Tammy Baldwin (Wisconsin) – no
Christopher Murphy (Connecticut) – no
Elizabeth Warren (Massachusetts) – no
Tim Kaine (Virginia) – no
Maggie Hassan (New Hampshire) – no

Secretary of Labor: Trump nominee – Andrew Puzder (withdrawn)
Replacement Trump nominee: R. Alexander Acosta (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
Democratic members (10)
Patty Murray (Washington) – no
Robert Casey (Pennsylvania) – no
Al Franken (Minnesota) – no
Michael Bennet (Colorado) – no
Sheldon Whitehouse (Rhode Island) – no
Tammy Baldwin (Wisconsin) – no
Christopher Murphy (Connecticut) – no
Elizabeth Warren (Massachusetts) – no
Tim Kaine (Virginia) – no
Maggie Hassan (New Hampshire) – no

Secretary of Homeland Security: Trump nominee – John Kelly (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
Democratic members (7)
Claire McCaskill (Missouri) – yes
Thomas Carper (Delaware) – yes
Jon Tester (Montana) – yes
Heidi Heitkamp (North Dakota) – yes
Gary Peters (Michigan)  – yes
Maggie Hassan (New Hampshire) – yes
Kamala Harris (California) – no

Attorney General (Department of Justice): Trump nominee – Jeff Sessions (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Judiciary
Democratic members (9)
Dianne Feinstein (California) – no
Patrick Leahy (Vermont) – no
Richard Durbin (Illinois) – no
Sheldon Whitehouse (Rhode Island) – no
Amy Klobuchar (Minnesota) – no
Al Franken (Minnesota) – no
Christopher Coons (Delaware) – no
Richard Blumenthal (Connecticut) – no
Mazie Hirono (Hawaii) – no

Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs: Trump nominee – David Shulkin (confirmed)
Responsible Committee: Veterans’ Affairs
Democratic members (7)
Jon Tester (Montana) – yes
Patty Murray (Washington) – yes
Bernard Sanders (Vermont) – yes
Sherrod Brown (Ohio) – yes
Richard Blumenthal (Connecticut) – yes
Mazie Hirono (Hawaii) – yes
Joe Manchin (West Virginia) – yes