Tag Archives: ethnomedicine

Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jakholi

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Ethnomedicinal plants used by local inhabitants of Jakholi block, Rudraprayag district, western Himalaya, India

Singh A, Nautiyal MC, Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Aug 24;13(1):49
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5571566

Uttarakhand State in Northwestern India
Uttarakhand State in Northwestern India [Source: Filpro, Wikimedia Commons]
Investigators at H.N.B. Garhwal University, Practical Solution Consultancy Nepal, and the Missouri Botanical Garden conducted the first ethnomedicinal study in the Jakholi area of Rudraprayag district in the Uttarakhand state of northwestern India, to identify traditional medicinal plants used by the inhabitants to treat different ailments and document the associated knowledge of those medicinal plants.

Writing in the Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, the authors describe the Jakholi Block as an especially valuable home of a wide range of medicinal plants and repository of traditional knowledge about their therapeutic uses:

“The study area is interesting due to wide geographic and climatic condition and medicinal plants diversity of Jakholi Block makes this region an especially valuable treasure home of a wide range of wild medicinal and aromatic plants. Ethnic people, shepherd and traditional medicinal practitioner (Vaidyas and Daai) inhabit within a range of 700–3800 m asl and have high knowledge of medicinal plants uses. Local wooden and stone tools are commonly used to prepare medicinal remedies. Most diseases cured by local herbalist are common problems such as respiratory diseases, aches and pains, wounds and musculoskeletal ailments. Inhabitants often use local medicinal plants without prior advice of local traditional healers because they are using these plants since generations. In these connections, the present study was carried out to provide an overview of the knowledge of medicinal plants of the local and traditional healers of Jakholi area and to evaluate the status of these useful medicinal flora for identification of new drugs for health needs and suitable source of income for livelihood of inhabitants. We hypothesize that plant use at Jakholi would show similar response to other Himalayan regions, and that the local medicinal flora would have been overharvested.”

Working with 25 key participants including traditional healers, shepherds, and other local inhabitants, the team identified 78 medicinal species used to treat 14 different ailments including diseases of the skin and hair, gastrointestinal disorders, ophthalmologic complaints, and mental afflictions, among others.

Two species, Aconitum heterophyllum and Picrorhiza kurroa, were identified as particularly important ethnomedicinally as they have been used for generations and contain rich bioactive constituents. They are are also among 29 of the documented medicinal plant species that are listed as locally threatened due to premature harvesting and over-exploitation. ​In their conclusion, the authors also note that while older people still possess large traditional knowledge of plants and their therapeutic uses, outmigration among the young threatens the future of this traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plant Species of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild and cultivated plants in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa

Maroyi A
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Aug 8;13(1):43
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5549312

Eastern Cape, South Africa
Eastern Cape, South Africa [Source: TUBS, Wikimedia Commons]
Alfred Maroyi of the Medicinal Plants and Economic Development Research Center, University of Fort Hare, conducted a study in six villages in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, to assess useful plant species diversity, plant use categories, and local knowledge of both wild and cultivated useful species in the region.

Writing in the Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Professor Maroyi notes that the majority of the inhabitants in the study sites are traditional isiXhosa speaking people who are highly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods. Working with 138 local informants, Maroyi documented 125 useful plant species, more than a third of them exotic and the remainder native. Approximately 75 percent were collected from the wild, 21 percent cultivated, and 5 percent “spontaneous” (growing without the assistance of humans).

Aloe arborescens
Aloe arborescens [Photo: Andrew massyn, Wikimedia Commons]
Most of the identified species (62 percent) were used as ethnoveterinary and human medicines. Documented species considered to have potential in the development of new medicinal products with commercial value include Acacia karroo, Alepidea amatymbica, Aloe arborescens (Aloe candelabro), Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, Artemisia afra, Bulbine frutescens, Carpobrotus edulis, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Gunnera perpensa, Helichrysum nudifolium, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Leonotis leonurus, Lippia javanica, Mentha longifolia, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Prunus africana, Tulbaghia alliacea, Tulbaghia violacea, Typha capensis, Withania somnifera, Xysmalobium undulatum, and Ziziphus mucronata.

Of these, A. amatymbica, G. perpensa, H. hemerocallidea, and P. africana are threatened with extinction mainly because of over-exploitation for the traditional medicine trade.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plants of Yalo, a Woreda in Ethiopia’s Afar Regional State

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An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia

Teklehaymanot T
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Jul 5;13(1):40
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5499056

Afar Regional State, Ethiopia
Afar Regional State, Ethiopia [Source: TUBS, Wikimedia Commons]
Tilahun Teklehaymanot of the Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, conducted an ethnobotanical survey to document medicinal and edible plants used in Yalo, a woreda in Ethiopia’s Afar Regional State.

Writing in the Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Professor Teklehaymanot describes the vulnerability of traditional knowledge in Afar:

“The people in the Afar region have the lowest health and education coverage in the country with the highest food insecurity. They are a traditional society that has native and unique information exchange system by word of mouth called ‘Dagu,’ which their livelihood is very much dependent on the information transferred through Dagu system. The information ranges from weather to availability of grazing lands for their animals, and peace and security of the region. Nevertheless, the cultural transformation, expansion of modern education and development in the area could detach the younger generation from such cultural values and pastoral systems that lead to loss of traditional knowledge in general, and knowledge of medicinal and edible plants in particular.”

Acalypha fruticosa
Acalypha fruticosa [Photo: J.M.Garg, Wikimedia Commons]
Working with 160 informants selected with the assistance of elders, the author documented 102 medicinal plant species used to treat human as well as livestock diseases. Particularly important plants (species reported by 15 and more informants and used as a remedy for multiple diseases) included Acacia mellifera, Acacia oerfota, Acalypha fruticosa, Acalypha indica, Balanites aegyptiaca, Balanites rotundifolia, Cadaba farinosa, Cadaba glandulosa, Cadaba rotundifolia, Celosia polystachia, and Indigofera oblongifolia.

The plants were used as remedies for a variety of conditions such as breast cancer, dyspepsia, epilepsy, herpes zoster, jaundice, lung infection, malaria, stomachache, bloody dysentery, and fever.

In his conclusion, the author recommends conservation to ensure sustainable use of the plants and protect the associated traditional knowledge.

“The edible plants are used as food security and generate the pastoralist economic. All the plants with medicinal and economic importance are collected from the wide and conservation is not practiced in the area. Hence, conservation of the plants in the home garden and in the natural vegetation is a necessity against the recurrent drought and climatic changes that negatively affect the vegetation of the area, to protect the associated traditional knowledge from fast disappearing and ensure sustainable use of the plants in the traditional healthcare system. The integration of edible plants in the food sufficiency strategies in the area has to be considered since animal productivity is severely affected by encroaching invasive plants and recurrent drought. The holistic soil and water conservation policy that is being implemented in other parts of the country has to be employed in the region to save the natural vegetation that is also the repository for the medicinal and edible plants for future pharmacological and nutritional studies.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diarrhea in Ethiopia

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Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

Woldeab B, Regassa R, Alemu T, Megersa M
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 Mar 18;2018
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5878875

Investigators from Jimma University and Hawassa College of Teacher Education conducted an inventory of plant species used in the treatment of diarrheal diseases by indigenous people of Ethiopia.

Writing in Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, the authors note that the World Health Organization has initiated a diarrhea disease control program to study traditional medicine practices and prevention approaches to the condition. Diarrhea is a leading killer of children, accounting for 9 percent of all deaths among children under age of five worldwide, with Sub-Saharan Africa having one of the highest child death rates due to diarrhea.

Allopathic study of antidiarrheal properties of medicinal plants used in Ethiopian traditional medicine is in early stages:

“Although there are a range of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoeal properties that have been widely used by local communities of Ethiopia, the effectiveness of many of these antidiarrhoeal traditional medicines has not been scientifically evaluated. Recently, a few of these medicinal plants have attracted considerable attention and studies being conducted to scientifically evaluate their antidiarrhoeal activities.”

The team recorded 132 plant species used to treat diarrheal diseases in Ethiopia, based on a review of studies published between 1965 and 2017.

Citrus limon
Citrus limon [Photo: WAH]
Among the most commonly used plants were Amaranthus caudatus, Brucea antidysenterica, Calpurnia aurea, Citrus limon, Coffea arabica, Cordia africana, Indigofera spicata, Lepidium sativum, Leucas deflexa, Rumex nepalensis, Stereospermum kunthianum, Syzygium guineense, Verbascum sinaiticum, Verbena officinalis, Vernonia amygdalina, and Zehneria scabra.

Most of the remedies were prepared from fresh parts of the medicinal plants, followed by dried forms, and a smaller group prepared either from dry or fresh plant parts. Additives like honey, salt, sugar, beer, milk, and butter were used to help make the plants suitable for oral administration.

The authors note that sufficient studies have not been conducted in the Afar, Benishangul Gumuz, Gambella, and Somali regions for the inventory to be considered complete.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plants Used by Saraguro Community Healers in Ecuador

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Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador

Andrade JM, Lucero Mosquera H, Armijos C
Biomed Res Int. Epub 2017 Jul 4
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5514338

Investigators at the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL) conducted an ethnobotanical survey of the use of medicinal plants by community healers known as Hampiyachakkuna by the indigenous Saraguro people living in San Lucas Parish, Loja Province, Ecuador.

Writing in Biomed Research International, the authors note that this ethnobotanical knowledge is endangered by cultural changes:

“The community of healers locally known as ‘Hampiyachakkuna’ maintains the ancient medical treatments of the Saraguros. The ‘Yachak’ or ‘Hampi yachakkuna’ is the person who knows the curative properties of plants, animals, and/or minerals. Under the Andean cosmovision of the Saraguros ethnical group, the diseases they treat are thought to be produced by either cold or heat. As such, their natural medicines are classified as hot and fresh; and depending on the nature of the patient’s condition, different plants are selected for the treatment in accordance with this classification. However, although the knowledge regarding the usage of plants for medicinal practices has been transmitted orally from generation to generation, the Saraguros are experimenting cultural changes that threaten the preservation of their ancestral knowledge. These cultural changes lead to negative consequences such as the loss of traditional knowledge, a decline in the use of natural resources, and changes in the patterns of food intake, medical treatment, and, furthermore, their cosmovision. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to document and preserve their invaluable knowledge.”

Working with four healers from the Saraguro community – a Wachakhampiyachak (midwife), a Yurakhampiyachak (herbalist), a Kakuyhampiyachak (bone-healer), and a Rikuyhampiyachak (visionary) – the team documented 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies. Uses included mythological treatments, nervous system treatments, cold treatments, infection treatments, general malaise treatments, and inflammatory treatments of the liver and kidneys.

Siphocampylus scandens
Siphocampylus scandens [Photo: Dick Culbert, Wikimedia Commons]
Endemic medicinal species identified included Achyrocline hallii, Ageratina dendroides, Bejaria subsessilis, Brachyotum scandens, Dendrophthora fastigiata, Diplostephium juniperinum, Diplostephium oblanceolatum, Fuchsia hypoleuca, Huperzia austroecuadorica, Lepechinia paniculata, Phoradendron parietarioides, Siphocampylus scandens, and Salvia leucocephala. Most of the endemic plants in the group were determined to be in danger, threatened, or vulnerable.

The study was conducted under a technical and scientific collaborative effort of the UTPL, the Dirección Provincial de Salud de Loja, and the Consejo de Sanadores de Saraguro “with the objective of recognizing and recovering the traditional knowledge of herbal medicinal resources used by the Saraguro community”:

“Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of the different medicinal species used by the Saraguros and in an effort to preserve their knowledge, in this work we seek to contribute to the conservation strategy on the sustainable uses of the Ecuadorian medicinal biodiversity. The latter is considered a fundamental step in order to raise awareness of its cultural value and the importance of its preservation. By doing that, we intended to safeguard the popular knowledge concerning natural medicinal plants and to provide a baseline for future actions regarding scientific research programs, environmental education, social awareness, and sustainable natural resources exploitation…. The results of this research also aim at becoming a starting point to attract the attention of national and international tourists, in order to promote a self-sustaining development of the Saraguro community.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers of Three Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

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Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

Faruque MO, Uddin SB, Barlow JW, Hu S, Dong S, Cai Q, Li X, Hu X
Front Pharmacol. 2018 Feb 6;9:40
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5808248

Investigators at Huazhong Agricultural University, University of Chittagong, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, and Hubei Cancer Hospital documented information on ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers of three indigenous communities in the Bandarban, a hilly, primarily agricultural district in southeastern Bangladesh.

The team chose three Bandarban district upazilas (administration regions) for the study (Naikhyonchari, Rowangchari, and Ruma) as their distance from cities make them some of the most remote areas of Bangladesh. Of the twelve indigenous communities, three (Chakma, Marma, and Tripura) are reported to employ ethnomedicinal herbal practices particularly heavily and were asked to participate in the interviews.

A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, 128 of them native, were reported to be useful for therapeutic purposes including the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, as a sedative, for anti-tumor, anti-allergic, or carminative activity, for coughs and colds, and for boils and other skin ailments.

Congea tomentosa
Congea tomentosa [photo: Forest & Kim Starr, Wikimedia Commons]
The five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species were Duabanga grandiflora, Zingiber officinale, Congea tomentosa, Matricaria chamomilla, and Engelhardtia spicata. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, seven of the species documented in the study have never before been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied in Western scientific literature: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, Congea tomentosa, Engelhardia spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia, and Smilax odoratissima.

In their conclusion, the authors recommend a closer look at C. tomentosa and E. spicata in particular:

The present study showed that traditional treatment systems using medicinal plants is still prevalent in the studied areas, and it underlines the importance in the documentation of traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge before losing this diverse resource. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative ethnomedicinal study in the study area indicating UV, ICF, FC, RFC, RI, and JI indices. The present study records new ethnomedicinal species with their therapeutic uses, which can potentially lead to the development of new therapies and may represent novel bioresources for phytochemical and pharmacological studies, notably C. tomentosa and E. spicata, which have claimed anticancer effects by the healers of all studied indigenous communities in the study area.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Uses of Wild Food Plants in Italy’s Middle Agri Valley

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Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy)

Sansanelli S, Ferri M, Salinitro M, Tassoni A
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Sep 6;13(1):50
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5586000

Investigators from the University of Bologna conducted an ethnobotanical survey in a scarcely populated area of Italy’s Middle Agri Valley to record local knowledge of the traditional uses of wild food plants, and to collect information regarding the medicinal uses related to these plants.

Asparagus acutifolius
Asparagus acutifolius [photo: Hectonichus, Wikimedia Commons]
Working with local informants, the team identified six species of wild food plants that were also noted for their therapeutic value: Asparagus acutifolius (kidney wellbeing), Cichorium intybus (liver wellbeing), Foeniculum vulgare (digestion), Glycyrrhiza glabra (feet sweating), Leopoldia comosa (soothing of burning eyes), and Sambucus nigra (stomachache).

The authors noted a relative paucity of reported medicinal properties of wild food plants in the region, which they attributed to a possible loss of ethnomedicinal knowledge:

“Some plant species previously reported … as phytoremedies, such as Laurus nobilis and Origanum vulgare, were also mentioned by the informants but only to be used as food and without any relation to possible therapeutic properties, indicating the loss of such knowledge over the years. This pattern was also confirmed by comparing the present results with other studies carried out few years ago in Basilicata region both among Italians and Arbëreshë communities. In particular, many species mentioned in the present research as having only food use, were previously indicated as also showing a medicinal application such as A. rusticana (anti-rheumatic), C. vitalba (heal mouth inflammation), C. cardunculus (anti-rheumatic, digestive), L. nobilis, F. carica, G. glabra, M. domestica and Z. jujuba (heal sore-throat), Rubus spp. and P. spinosa (hepato-protective), S. marianum (laxative), S. oleraceus (anti-gastritis), P. rhoeas (mild sedative)…. In addition, some species that have a well-known medicinal use in other parts of Italy, were not mentioned as having particular therapeutic effects in the Midlle Agri Valley. In particular, no medicinal properties were reported for Urtica spp., which in many other studies in Italy and abroad is known both as food and for medical use (refreshing, against kidney problems and for arthritis), and for Taraxacum officinale Weber and Sonchus spp., that have previously been defined as medicinal foods with both high nutritional values and depurative, blood cleaning and refreshing effects.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plants Used by Balti People in Pakistan’s Shigar Valley

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Medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Shigar Valley, Baltistan region of Karakorum range-Pakistan

Abbas Z, Khan SM, Alam J, Khan SW, Abbasi AM
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Sep 25;13(1):53
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5613401

Skardu, Shigar Valley, Pakistan
Skardu, Shigar Valley, Pakistan [Photo: Rizwan Saeed, Wikimedia Commons]
Investigators at Hazara University, Quaid-i-Azam University, Karakoram International University, and COMSATS conducted an ethnobotanical study to document medicinal uses of plant species by the inhabitants of the Shigar Valley in the Karakorum Range of Northern Pakistan. This is the first such study in the region, which is home to ethnic Balti people of Tibetan descent:

“Baltistan is an archetypal mountainous region of the Northern Pakistan with average altitude of 3555 m above sea level. Historically, it has often been referred as “Western Tibet” or ‘Little Tibet’. The territories of the Baltistan region lie sparsely at acclivities and in deep mountains of Karakorum and Himalaya with unique landscape, climate, flora and fauna. However, remoteness, difficult access and inadequate funding may be the major handicaps to conduct field survey in these areas. Only few workers have conducted ethnobotanical survey in some parts of Northern Pakistan. Therefore, very limited ethno-botanical literature is available in the region. Shigar valley is located in the Karakorum Ranges, and is the home of various peaks (including K2), glaciers and hot springs, which have always been the most preferred tracking places for visitors across the country and abroad. Ethno-botany is a recently introduced and rapidly flourishing field in this region, and is gaining adequate attention by researchers. Although, various ethnobotanical surveys have be conducted in different parts of Pakistan. However, Northern parts of country are still poorly explored. Therefore, present survey aimed to provide the first inventory on ethno-pharmacological application of medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Balti community of Shigar valley, Karakorum Mountains-Pakistan.”

Allium carolinianum
Allium carolinianum [Photo: Sherpaworld, Wikimedia Commons]
Working with local respondents, the team identified 84 medicinal plant species used primarily to treat abdominal, respiratory, and skin ailments. Commonly used plants included Allium carolinianum, Hippophe rhamnoides, Tanacetum falconeri, and Thymus linearis. Roughly a quarter of the species were identified for medicinal uses for the first time and included Aconitum violoceum, Arnebia guttata, Biebersteinia odora, Clematis alpina, Corydalis adiantifolia, Hedysarum falconeri, and Saussurea simpsoniana.

The authors found the results to be significant for scientific purposes, as well as for conservation and cultural/economic development:

“Present study illustrated diverse medicinal flora in the territories of Gilgit-Baltistan mountains. The exclusive alliance of medicinal plants, mountain restricted distribution and high level disagreement in traditional uses corroborate the significance of this study. Being the first inventory on medicinal flora of Shigar valley, present study offers baseline data for researchers, particularly interested in high mountains phyto-diversity and related traditional knowledge. The sub-alpine species in environs are practicable for conservation and cultivation. The abundance of medicinal plant species in the study area could enhance the economic status of local communities by marketing and sustainable utilization. Local inhabitants can make their home gardens or micro park system of medicinally important species on their own land.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plants Used as Insect Repellents in Malaria-Endemic Localities of Cameroon

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Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as insects repellents in six malaria endemic localities of Cameroon

Youmsi RDF, Fokou PVT, Menkem EZ, Bakarnga-Via I, Keumoe R, Nana V, Boyom FF
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Jun 8;13(1):3
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5465592

Investigators from the University of Yaoundé, University of Adam Barka-Abeche, and National Herbarium of Cameroon conducted an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as insect repellents in six malaria-endemic localities of Cameroon: Lolodorf, Bipindi, Kribi-Londji, Dimako, Kon-Yambetta, and Mbouda (Babete). The inhabitants of these regions include Bagyeli, Bakola, and Baka pygmies, among others.

Citrus limon
Citrus limon [Photo: WAH]
Working with 182 local informants, the team identified 16 plant species commonly used as insect repellents, including Canarium schweinfurthii, Chromolaena odorata, Citrus limon, and Elaeis guineensis. Important modes of administration included plants burnt to produce smoke inside the house (50%), smashed for topical application (31%), and hung inside the house (19%).

The authors concluded that the results have baseline potential for further scientific investigation of plant-based mosquito repellents, while urging caution regarding the use of one plant, Erythrophleum ivorense:

“[T]he insecticidal activity of the bark extract of Erythrophleum ivorense was previously reported in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Besides, Erythrophleum ivorense is resistant to fungi, dry wood borers and termites. This denotes repellency/insecticidal properties that might be explained by the presence of pharmacologically active alkaloids in the bark and seed such as cassaine, cassaidine and erythrophleguine. However, it should be noted that high doses of the bark extract are extremely strong, rapid-acting cardiac poison in warm-blooded animals causing shortness of breath, seizures and cardiac arrest in a few minutes. Furthermore, the seeds are reported to be more toxic due to a strong haemolytic saponin which acts synergistically with the alkaloids. Fresh bark of this plant was reported to be burnt by Mbamda (Bafia) people to repel in-house mosquitoes. Given the presence of toxic alkaloids in the bark, the resulting smokes are highly likely to be equally poisonous to insects and human, stressing the fact that it should be used with caution or simply discontinued.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Ethnobotanical Use of Medicinal Plants in Sheikhupura District, Punjab, Pakistan

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An ethnopharmacological evaluation of Navapind and Shahpur Virkanin district Sheikupura, Pakistan for their herbal medicines

Zahoor M, Yousaf Z, Aqsa T, Haroon M, Saleh N, Aftab A, Javed S, Qadeer M, Ramazan H
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 May 8;13(1):27
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5422909

Punjab Province, Pakistan
Punjab Province, Pakistan [Source: TUBS, Wikimedia Commons]
Investigators from the Lahore College for Women University conducted an ethnopharmacological survey to document the medicinal uses of wild plants in the villages of Nava Pind and Shahpur Virkanin in the Sheikhupura district of Punjab province in eastern Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical documentation of medicinal plants to be undertaken in the region.

“The village[s] NavaPind and ShahpurVirkan [of the] district Sheikhupura are floristically quite rich tropical regions of Punjab. Ethnobotanical study of this area has never been conducted. The climate of the area is subjected to extreme variations. Wheat, Rice and Sugarcane are the main cash crops. Guavas, Strawberries and Citrus are grown at a larger scale in this district. Literacy rate of the villages is very low. Generally it is observed that most men in these areas are engaged in unskilled labor, while women are self-employed in petty trade of agriculture especially in the collection and trade of wild food and medicinal plants. Mostly plants are used for many purposes like food, shelter and therapeutic agents. However, lack of scientific knowledge about the useable parts, proper time of collection and wasteful methods of collection lead to mismanagement of these plants. So, the indigenous knowledge is going to be depleted. Hence ethnobotanical survey is planned for NavaPind and ShahpurVirkan district Sheikhupura, province Punjab to document the traditional uses of medicinal plants in the area before the information is lost.”

Ocimum sanctum
Ocimum sanctum [Photo: WAH]
Working with indigenous local informants, the team identified 96 plant species used for medicinal purposes, including 12 species that had not been previously reported for medicinal properties: Allium roylei, Asthenatherum forkalii, Carthamus tinctorius, Conyza erigeron, Digitaria ciliaris, Digitaria nodosa, Jasminum nudiflorum, Malva verticillata, Melilotus indica [Melilotus indicus], Ocimum sanctum, Schoenoplectus supinus, and Tetrapogon tenellus. Therapeutic applications included abdominal pain, respiratory disorder, cholera, and use as a skin tonic, among others.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

Send email to avery@williamaveryhudson.com for information about submitting qualified published research for sponsored posts on this blog.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.