Tag Archives: ethnopharmacology

Medicinal Plants Used in Kel, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

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Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous plants in Kel village, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Ahmad KS, Hamid A, Nawaz F, Hameed M, Ahmad F, Deng J, Akhtar N, Wazarat A, Mahroof S
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017 Dec 1;13(1):68
PubMed Central: PMC5709976

Investigators at the University of Poonch Rawalakot; University of Agriculture, Multan; University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; Guizhou Education University; and G.C. Women University conducted the first published explorative study of indigenous knowledge used in the preparation of herbal medicines in Kel village in the Upper Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

Kel Village, Pakistan
Kel Village, Pakistan [Source: Furqanlw, Wikimedia Commons]
Writing in the Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad and coauthors note that theirs is the first effort to provide quantitative ethnobotanical data employed by indigenous people in this region, which is “characterized by its remoteness, long distance from urban centers, difficult mountainous terrain, and a lack of government services, including modern health care facilities”:

“The area has poorly developed road and other infrastructure. The people of the area rely on sustainable agriculture. Main crops include corn (Zea mays L.), turnip (Brasica rapa L.), and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in an integrated system. A high proportion of local people are associated with livestock. A number of the main occupations are associated with summer tourism, including rest house managers, tour guides, shop keepers, restaurant workers, and jeep drivers. In light of these demographic changes, it is vital to document the local knowledge of medicinal plant usage in this area before such information declines or is lost completely.”

Achillea millefolium
Achillea millefolium [Source: Petar Milošević, Wikimedia Commons]
Working with informants well known in the region for their medicinal expertise and knowledge about medicinal plants, the team documented 50 medicinal plants used locally, including Achillea millefolium, Ageratum conozoides, Artemisia scoparia, Berberis lycium, and Impatiens glandulifera. Newly documented ethnomedicinal uses were recorded for several species: Ailanthus excelsa (fever), Betula utilis (Jaundice), Bistorta amplexicaulis (tonic), Dryopteris ramosa (ulcer), Dryopteris stewartii (tuberculosis), Fumaria officinalis (skin allergies), Gallium boreole (skin problems), Hedera nepalensis (ulcer), Impatiens glandulifera (joint pain), Inula grandiflora (liver pain), Jurinea dolomiaea (bone fracture), Plectranthus rugosus (skin allergies and diarrhea), Podophyllum emodi (cancer), Prunella vulgaris (heart diseases), Quercus ballota (dysentery), Rubus ellipticus (wound healing), Saussurea lanceolata (typhoid), and Swertia petiolata (liver pain).

In their conclusion, the authors note the importance of these often-endangered plant species for the people living in the region, and the potential for establishing their sustainable use:

“This study will help us to link ethnobotanical and chemical knowledge to understand the use of medicinal plants by traditional communities. The information obtained from this study will encourage native communities in trading off locally prepared herbal products. As a result of expanding interest, new income-generating opportunities will be available for poor rural household. Moreover, sustainable uses of plant resources will promote biological and cultural diversity which in return will promotion of local biocultural diversity through ecotourism initiatives.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.




The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

The Useful Argan Tree

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Ethnobotanic, Ethnopharmacologic Aspects and New Phytochemical Insights into Moroccan Argan Fruits

Khallouki F, Eddouks M, Mourad A, Breuer A, Owen RW
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Oct 30;18(11)
PubMed Central: PMC5713247

Researchers at the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum and Facultés des Sciences et Techniques d’Errachidia reviewed current data on the argan tree (Argania spinosa) and its fruit, including geographical distribution, traditional uses, environmental interest, and socioeconomic role.

Goats on an Argan tree in Morocco
Goats on an Argan tree in Morocco [Source: Marco Arcangeli, WikiMedia Commons]
Writing in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, the authors detail existing ethnobotanical, ethnomedical, and phytochemical data on argan fruits and offer insights about new natural products derived from them.

From the introduction:

“The argan tree Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, an endemic species of Morocco with tropical affinities, is typically a multi-purpose tree, and plays a very important socio-economic role in this country, while maintaining an ecological balance. This species is the only representative of the tropical family Sapotaceae in Morocco. The tree is the second largest forest species, after oak and before cedar, and can live up to 200 years. The tree was recognized as a biosphere reserve since 1998 and was declared as a “protected species” by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

“The argan tree has very specific chemical compositions which fortify their potential in particular for use in food, cosmetic, and medical preparations. The argan tree supports the livelihood of rural populations as a source of income and therefore they depend on the aganeraie. The various botanical parts of the tree also make a large contribution to biodiversity.”

The authors note the environmental importance of the Argan tree, whose roots develop deeply, helping prevent wind erosion and desertification of the soil. The trees provide shade for a number of crops, and help maintain soil fertility. One hundred plant species have been recorded growing near the argan tree, which speaks to the genetic importance of the tree itself as well to other animal and plant species.

After a fuel crisis in 1917, during which thousands of hectares of argan tree were destroyed, the Moroccan state took ownership of the tree while preserving the right of inhabitants of the region to benefit from the forest, including the right to harvest. The tree and its products are increasingly important to the Moroccan economy:

“The Arganeraie constitutes an important source of income for the Moroccan Berber populations. The press cake is used for fattening cattle, while fruit pulp and leaves also constitute a fodder for animals. The wood of the argan tree is extensively used as an energy bioresource, in the form of coal. The most economically viable part of the tree is its fruit, which provides food and cosmetic oils. The global demand for this oil is now increasing in the North American, European Union, Asia Pacific (China and Japan), Middle East and South African markets. The number of personal-care products on the US market including argan oil as an ingredient increased from just two in 2007, to over one hundred by 2011.

“The argan tree has created many jobs through the creation of women’s cooperatives. The global argan oil market was 4835.5 tons in 2014 and is expected to reach 19,622.5 tons by 2022.”

The authors review and update current research on the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and ethnobotany aspects of the argan tree and catalog a number of bioactive compounds that may play an important role against several ailments, including arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, skin diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

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Recognizing & Recovering Traditional Knowledge of Saraguro Healers in Southern Ecuador

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Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador

Andrade JM, Lucero Mosquera H, Armijos C
Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9343724
PubMed Central: PMC5514338

Loja Province, Ecuador
Loja Province, Ecuador [Source: TUBS, WikimediaCommons]
Investigators at Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja conducted an ethnobotanical survey in the Loja Province of southern Ecuador to learn about the use of medicinal plants by Hampiyachakkuna community healers treating the indigenous Saraguro population in San Lucas Parish.

Writing in the journal BioMed Research International, authors José M. Andrade, Hernán Lucero Mosquera, and Chabaco Armijos note that only a few ethnobotanical studies have reported on the use of plants in the Saraguro region and that a thorough documentation of medicinal plants used by Saraguro healers has not been done prior to this investigation. They describe an urgent need to document and preserve this cultural knowledge:

“The Saraguros are one of the best-organized ethnical groups in Ecuador and have conserved many aspects of their ancient culture and traditions for centuries. They demonstrate the latter by preserving their typical dressing, language, religion, gastronomy, architecture, social habits, and medical practices. Among their medical practice traditions, this ethnic group is known for the use of medicinal plants in their own health care system. In fact, the use of these plants as therapeutic agents is an important feature of traditional indigenous medicine and is still practiced within the Saraguro community. In particular, the Saraguros are highly recognized for the development of optimization techniques that help them select natural/plant resources to be used in their health care practices.”

The team carried out their research on several field visits, during which they interviewed four healers from the Saraguro community (a Wachakhampiyachak [midwife], a Yurakhampiyachak [herbalist], a Kakuyhampiyachak [bone-healer], and a Rikuyhampiyachak [visionary]) regarding the medicinal plants they used in their practices. Notably, while the healers are highly trusted and recognized as effective by the community, they are also well integrated into the region’s allopathic health care system and readily transfer a patient to a health center or hospital when they detect serious conditions.

Working with the healers, the investigators documented the existence of 183 medicinal plant species used in 75 different curative therapies, including nervous system treatments, cold treatments, infection treatments, general malaise treatments, inflammatory treatments of the liver and kidneys, and “mythological” treatments (for diseases determined to be of a supernatural nature).

Salvia leucocephala
Salvia leucocephala [Photo: Dick Culbert, Wikimedia Commons]
The team documented thirteen medicinal plants endemic to the region: Achyrocline hallii (sacha algodón); Ageratina dendroides (pegac chilca); Bejaria subsessilis (pena de cerro); Brachyotum scandens (sarcillo sacha); Dendrophthora fastigiata (suelda pequeña); Diplostephium juniperinum (monte de baño); Diplostephium oblanceolatum (chuquir agua); Fuchsia hypoleuca (sacha pena); Huperzia austroecuadorica (wuaminga verde pequeño); Lepechinia paniculata (shallshón); Phoradendron parietarioides (suelda grande); Salvia leucocephala (sp flor morado); Siphocampylus scandens (pena rojo de monte). Most of these plants are either vulnerable or endangered, due primarily to habitat loss.

In their conclusion, the authors stress the importance of preservation:

“This research conducted in collaboration with the members of the native Saraguro community constitutes a baseline study to help promote the preservation of this ancient medicinal knowledge by a thorough documentation of the natural resources and processing methods used. Moreover, we hope the results of this study motivate young generations to envision the potential of the use and application of traditional knowledge in medicinal practices. Finally, this scientific research and the results here reported aim at preserving and enhancing, as much as possible, a culture of the practice of natural ancient medicinal science, while preserving the environment, nature, life, culture, and sovereignty of the Saraguro people.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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EthnomedicineWatch.com

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I recently launched a new open-access website to capture one of my abiding interests: tropical medicine and certain related disciplines, including ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, and ethnopharmacology.

EthnomedicineWatch
EthnomedicineWatch.com

The site is EthnomedicineWatch.com, and it delivers continually updated information on current peer-reviewed research about medicinal plants, indexed by species and sponsoring organization.

OncologyWatch
OncologyWatch.com

EthnomedicineWatch is one of two websites that I maintain to provide information relevant to health care. The other site, OncologyWatch.com, provides continually updated information on peer-reviewed journal articles and current clinical trials in cancer treatment, indexed by cancer type.

My epistemological method for these websites derives from “As We May Think,” a 1945 Atlantic Monthly essay by Vannevar Bush, FDR’s science adviser during and after World War II. Bush’s vision of a personal knowledge base (memex) led to the development of the hyperlink and the World Wide Web.

PubMed (an archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature) and ClinicalTrials.gov (a database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies conducted around the world) are essential to EthnomedicineWatch and OncologyWatch. Virtually every update to my two sites originates with either PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov, both of which are maintained by the US National Institutes of Health’s National Library of Medicine—surely two of the most useful and most efficient instances of US taxes at work.

To make full use of EthnomedicineWatch and OncologyWatch, you may also want to follow my blog posts and Twitter feed as I work to integrate these information streams into a unified, open-access “knowledge machine” to support the work of environmental stewards and promoters of human health and creativity. (On that, more to come.)

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Ancestral Healers Help Document Medicinal Plants of Ecuador’s Chimborazo Province

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Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province of Chimborazo, Ecuador

Morales F, Padilla S, Falconí F
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2016 Nov 23;14(1):10-15
PubMed Central: PMC5357882

Chimborazo Province in Ecuador
Chimborazo Province in Ecuador [Source: Wikimedia Commons]
Investigators at Temple University and Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo conducted an ethnobotanical/phytotherapy study in cooperation with local ancestral healers to document medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador.

Writing in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines, the authors note the paucity of published ethnomedicinal studies of this region.

“The Andean region of Ecuador has witnessed a marked expansion of nature conservation initiatives. Specifically, the province of Chimborazo, with 59.3% of indigenous population living in rural areas, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. It owns a rich cultural heritage, with diverse life styles in rural communities. Particularly, in the urban marginal and rural areas of Chimborazo, the native traditional medicine covers the prevention, promotion and cure health services. For that reason, several initiatives have been carried out in order to strengthen the knowledge and wisdom of the ancestral healers of the region. Although there are many studies about medicinal plants in the regions of Quito, Buitrón, Cotopaxi and Imbabura, the phyto studies on Chimborazo province are really limited.”

Urtica dioica
Urtica dioica [Photo: WAH]
The team worked with 84 traditional healers, who identified a total of 153 different medicinal plants used to treat 179 different symptoms or illnesses. Ten of the most-used plants were selected for additional study: chamomile (Matricaria recutita); nettle (Urtica dioica); ragweed (Ambrosia arborescens); rue (Ruta graveolens); eucalyptus (Eucalyptus obliqua); plantain (Plantago major), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium); borage (Borago officinalis); field horsetail (Equisetum arvense); and mallow (Malva sylvestris).

The traditional healers will be kept informed of ongoing research, as they indicated an interest in knowing any new findings about active ingredients and other properties of the plants used in their ancestral medicine.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Togo Share Their Knowledge of Plants Used to Treat Asthma

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Ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat asthma in the maritime region in Togo

Gbekley HE, Katawa G, Karou SD, Anani S, Tchadjobo T, Ameyapoh Y, Batawila K, Simpore J
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2016 Nov 23;14(1):196-212
PubMed Central: PMC5411872

Togo
Togo [Source: Wikimedia Commons]
Investigators from the Université de Lomé and Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni conducted an ethnobotanical survey to document plants used in Togolese traditional medicine to treat asthma in Togo’s southernmost Maritime Region, where the main ethnic groups are the Ewe, Ouatchi, Mina, Fon, and Adja people.

For their study, the team interviewed 121 traditional healers, who use clinical manifestations such as wheezing, coughing, difficulty in speaking, dyspnea, dry cough, sweating, and increased heart rate to diagnose the disease.

Carica_papaya
Carica papaya [Source: Wikimedia Commons, Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen]
Writing in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Gbekley et al. document 98 plant species used in southern Togo to treat asthma, including Carica papaya, Cataranthus roseus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Piper guineense, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globules, and Euphorbia hirta. The team conducted a literature review to assess previous relevant ethnobotanical citations related to asthma, toxicity data, and screening reports for immunomodulatory activities.

From the introduction:

“Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyper-reactivity with symptoms causally related to family history, environmental influences, exposure to viruses and allergens as examples. The high economic burden linked with asthma is associated primarily with health care costs, missed work or school days. The treatment of asthma in the modern medicine is based on the use of beta agonists, leukotriene modifiers and inhaled corticosteroids that allowed an acceptable control of the main symptoms. However, this therapy could not suppress all the symptoms although the better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. On the other hand, the requirement for daily inhalation with glucocorticoids is often a cause for patient discomfort, limiting the use of glucocorticoids in asthma therapy. In addition, the current therapy is not affordable for the patients in developing countries, who rely on the traditional medicine. Therefore, there is a significant need for new medications for the treatment of asthma that are highly efficacious, with low cost, easily managed and with few adverse effects. In the search for new medications for asthma, plants through the traditional medicine are a credible alternative.”

The authors recommend further laboratory screenings to identify specific bioactive molecules that might be responsible for the reported therapeutic activities of these plant-derived medicines, and to investigate optimal dosages as well as possible side effects.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Bhutan Finds Alternative Source of Medicinal Plants to Ease Pressure from Commercial Harvesting

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Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential

Wangchuk P, Namgay K, Gayleg K, Dorji Y
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2016 Jun 24;12(1):28
PubMed Central: PMC4921017

Bhutan’s Ministry of Agriculture and Forests and Ministry of Health conducted an ethnobotanical survey to determine if the Dagala village block (gewog) might serve as an alternative collection site for the state-run Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals, which manufactures plant-based medicines for traditional g.so-ba-rig-pa hospitals in Bhutan.

Writing in the Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Phurpa Wangchuk of James Cook University and co-authors note that the ecological pressure on medicinal plants in Bhutan has increased significantly over recent years, particularly in Lingzhi Gewog, the primary source of plants and other raw materials for medical formulations manufactured for the country’s network of traditional medicine providers:

“[Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals (MSP)] manufactures more than 100 different polyingredient medicinal formulations and supplies them to the traditional medicine hospitals and units across the country. The polyingredient medicinal formulations are prepared into different dosage forms as powder, capsules, pills, tablets, ointments and decoctions. The raw materials (mostly medicinal plants) for preparing these formulations are either collected within Bhutan (mostly from Lingzhi region) or imported from India. The medicinal plants, which grow in the higher elevation of alpine mountains (>2000 meters above sea level) including that from Lingzhi region, are known as the High Altitude Medicinal Plants (HAMP) and the others that grow in the temperate and tropical environment are called the Low Altitude Medicinal Plants (LAMP). Due to persistent collections of HAMP from Lingzhi region for more than 48 years, the pressure on medicinal plants has increased significantly over the recent years. Therefore, identifying an alternative medicinal plants collection site for HAMP have been one of the MSP’s top priority.”

Bhutanese g.so-ba-rig-pa medicine is with traditional Tibetan medicine one of the oldest surviving medical traditions and is in wide practice across the world, so this case study is potentially of significance not only for Bhutan but also for the other countries that use these medicinal plants.

The team chose Dagala Gewog to study because it shares several agro-climatic features with Lingzhi Gewog and has never had an ethnobotanical survey (though there were abundant anecdotal claims about medicinal lush plant growth in the region), and because the local people could potentially benefit from a sustainable collection program.

Berberis aristata
Berberis aristata [Photo: Buddhika.jm, Wikimedia Commons]
Working with a local Byjop guide, the team identified 100 medicinal plant species from Dagala Gewog, 16 of which were abundant in the region and in current use by MSP: Aconitum laciniatum, Berberis aristata, Bistorta macrophylla, Euphorbia wallichii, Gentiana algida, Geranium refractum, Juniperus pseudosabina, Juniperus squamata, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Plantago depressa, Potentilla arbuscula, Rheum australe, Rhododendron anthopogon, Rhododendron glaucophyllum, Rhododendron setosum, and Taraxacum officinale.

“These 16 species that are found in abundance have the economic potential since MSP require them in bulk quantities to prepare g.so-ba-rig-pa medicines. Since g.so-ba-rig-pa is also practiced across the globe, these medicinal plants could be in demand by other countries including India, Nepal, Mongolia, Tibet and Switzerland (PADMA company based on Tibetan medicine). However, the first priority would be to focus on meeting the domestic demand of MSP for these medicinal plants. MSP currently engage yak herders for collecting medicinal plants from Lingzhi. As a result of medicinal plants collection program, the Lingzhip (local inhabitants of Lingzhi region) have improved their socio-economic status and contributed significantly to the realization of country’s ‘Gross National Happiness’ (GNH) indices including preservation of traditional medical knowledge, conservation of environment and socio-economic prosperity.”

The team concluded that it was feasible to establish an alternative medicinal-plant collection center in Dagala Gewog:

“Establishing an alternative HAMP collection centre in Dagala Gewog has multi-pronged benefits. The tangible and immediate benefits would include: a) Dagala communities could generate decent income through medicinal plants collection program and elevate their socio-economic status, b) MSP could obtain sustainable supply of HAMP to meet the demand of g.so-ba-rig-pa medicine production, c) training on sustainable collection of HAMP (always provided by MSP as a package of collection program) would educate Dagala Jops on the values, protection and preservation of plants, d) establishing this alternative collection center would ease the pressure on Lingzhi HAMP and could enable MSP to collect the plants on a rotational basis, and e) since Dagala region is known for eco-tourism, having the medicinal plants collection centre and the herb garden would enhance the in-flow of eco-tourists especially the botanists and the herbalists.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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In Kenya, Two More Plant Species Reported As Potential Antimalarials

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Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya

Mukungu N, Abuga K, Okalebo F, Ingwela R, Mwangi J
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Dec 24;194:98-107
PubMed Central: PMC5176009

Kakamega County in Kenya
Kakamega County in Kenya [Source: NordNordWest, Wikimedia Commons]
Researchers from the University of Nairobi conducted an ethnobotanical survey to document plants used in the management of malaria among Luhya people living in Kakamega County, Kenya. Two of the species, Rumex steudelii and Phyllanthus sepialis, have not previously been reported as malaria remedies.

In a paper published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, the authors describe the need for investigation of antimalarial botanical medicines used by the people of this region:

“In Kenya, 80% of the population is at risk of contracting [malaria]. Pregnant mothers and children under five years are the most affected by this disease. Antimalarial drug resistance poses a major threat in the fight against malaria necessitating continuous search for new antimalarial drugs. Due to inadequate and inaccessible health facilities, majority of people living in rural communities heavily depend on traditional medicine which involves the use of medicinal plants for the management of malaria. Most of these indigenous knowledge is undocumented and risks being lost yet such information could be useful in the search of new antimalarial agents.”

Rotheca myricoides
Rotheca myricoides [Photo: Kurt Stüber, Wikimedia Commons]
Working with traditional medicine practitioners and other caregivers, the team documented 42 plant species used in the management of malaria, including Melia azedarach, Aloe spp, Ajuga integrifolia, Vernonia amygdalina, Rotheca myricoides, Fuerstia africana, Zanthoxylum gilletii, Leucas calostachys, Clerodendrum johnstonii, and Physalis peruviana.

Two of the species identified by the team have not previously been reported as treatments for malaria: Rumex steudelii and Phyllanthus sepialis. With two exceptions (Clerodendrum johnstonii and Physalis peruviana), the rest have been tested in the laboratory for antiplasmodial activities. Antiplasmodial compounds have been isolated from fewer than half of the plants so far.

The authors conclude with a call for conservation, both of traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge and of the medicinal plants themselves. They note that botanical medicines used for malaria are mainly obtained from the wild and that those which are cultivated are done so because they are not easily available in the wild (e.g., introduced plants) or face extinction (e.g., Ajuga integrifolia).

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Ethnopharmacological Preparations of Monpa People in Arunachal Pradesh

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First Report on the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Medicinal Plants by Monpa Tribe from the Zemithang Region of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India

Chakraborty T, Saha S, Bisht NS
Plants (Basel). 2017 Mar 2;6(1)
PubMed Central: PMC5371772

Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India
Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India [Source: Filpro, Wikimedia Commons]
Researchers at Jiwaji University, University of Freiburg, Forest Research Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education conducted a study to document, for the first time, ethnopharmacological preparations of ethnomedicines among the Monpa people in the Zemithang region of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Their study is published in the open-access journal Plants.

From the introduction:

“Before coming to our research objectives, we would like to briefly mention the state of the art of ethnopharmacological research in the Himalayas. There are plenty of research works on the listing of the traditional uses of medicinal plants from the Himalayas. A search with the terms “medicinal plants * Himalayas” yielded 163 peer-reviewed articles listed in ISI Web of Knowledge on 20 February 2017. However, out of those 163 articles, 19 articles were found from the Eastern Himalayas and only two were on the Monpa tribe…. Haridasan et al., in the seminal works produced in 1998 and 1990, comprehensively listed medicinal and edible plants of the Monpa tribe and other tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. Recently, Namsa et al. (2011) listed 50 plant species and recorded their ethnobotanical uses among people of the Monpa tribe at the southern range of their habitation (i.e., Kalaktang circle of West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh). These two publications provided general descriptions of the plants, traditional uses of the plants to cure certain diseases, and traditional ways of consumption of these plants or plant parts (e.g., pills, syrups, decoctions, etc.). Nevertheless, no ethnopharmacological studies have yet reported how, and in what proportion, multiple plant parts from different species can be used to prepare specific ethnomedicines for healing of diseases among the Monpa tribes or any other tribes of the Eastern Himalayas as per our literature research as of 20 February 2017. In addition, the traditional knowledges of the people of the Monpa tribe residing at their northern habitation range (i.e., Zemithang circle of Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh) are still not adequately documented due to the remoteness of the location.”

Aconitum ferox
Aconitum ferox [Source: Wikimedia Commons, Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen]
The team describe 24 ethnomedicines prepared by traditional healers based on 53 plant species, including Aconitum ferox, Bergenia stracheyi, Campanula latifolia, Fragaria nubicola, Gentiana depressa, Hedychium spicatum, Iris clarkei, Leontopodium himalayanam, Meconopsis grandis, Onopordum acanthium, Panax pseudoginseng, Rheum australe, Swertia chirayita, Tanacetum gracile, and Vaccinium nummularia.

In their conclusions, the authors urge further scientific work based on the know-how of Monpa healers, with an eye toward conservation of their traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge:

“We have documented for the first time the vernacular names combined with ethnopharmacological preparations of ethnomedicines among Monpa tribes from the Zemithang region of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Past studies on ethnobotany in the Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, had listed uses of medicinal plants, however, we found that traditional healers use diverse species and plant parts in specific proportions for drug preparations. Our study illustrates the diversity of medicinal drug preparations and traditional knowledge that has passed through generation after generation of Monpa people. The ethnopharmacological documentation presented in this study should motivate researchers to carry out further scientific work on pharmacology, bioprospecting, and the cultivation of medicinal plants for the socioeconomic development in the region. Under ongoing warming of the Himalayas and mass migration of people from the mountain areas to cities, our study also highlights the need to document the traditional knowledge regarding the use of local flora and to develop strategies to conserve them before the traditional knowledges are lost or forgotten.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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Antimalarial Plants of Eastern Uttar Pradesh

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Ethnobotanical perspective of antimalarial plants: traditional knowledge based study

Qayum A, Arya R, Lynn AM
BMC Res Notes. 2016 Feb 4;9:67
PubMed Central: PMC4743172

Uttar Pradesh in India
Uttar Pradesh in India [Source: Wikimedia Commons, By Filpro]
Investigators from Jawaharlal Nehru University and Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy conducted an ethnobotanical study to find plants with antimalarial activities used by local people in the Gorakhpur, Kushinagar, and Maharajganj districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

The team documented 51 plants used for the treatment of malaria, including Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, and Swertia chirata.

Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica) [Photo: Wikimedia Commons, By ShineB]
The authors note that many important medicinal plants in the area are becoming rare and some of them are critically endangered because of overexploitation, loss of water reservoirs, and changes in land use.

From the conclusion:

“The work carried out revealed the plants recorded are highly valuable for antimalarial application and in future, bio-prospecting projects can be further initiated for sustainable harvesting towards developing antimalarial drug for curing malaria at large. It would help researchers to find out suitable lead molecules with antimalarial activity towards drug discovery. The study provides ample ground to believe that the traditional medicinal system practice using native medicinal plants is alive and well functioning in the selected area. Many communities use antimalarial plant parts and whole plant for their primary healthcare. It is primarily due to lack of modern medicines, medications, self-reliance on herbs, poor economic condition and more importantly faiths in TK System. The treatment of malaria with plants and plant parts causes little or no side effects and also it is very cheap and affordable. Some plants are nearly extinct in the region, the reason being change in land use pattern and shrinking of water bodies along with over harvesting of herbs. The bio-depletion of these antimalarial plants is due to the burgeoning population and unscientific management of the natural resources.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.




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