Tag Archives: ethnopharmacology

Ethnomedicinal plants of Garhwal Himalaya

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Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

Munesh Kumar, Mehraj A Sheikh and Rainer W Bussmann
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
2011 Oct 19;7:32
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3212913
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand, India (Source: CC-by-sa PlaneMad/Wikimedia)

Researchers from HNB Garhwal University and Missouri Botanical Garden interviewed older, experienced men and women of Garhwal Himalaya in the state of Uttarakhand, India, about their use of ethnomedicinal plants and cataloged 57 species across the different climatic regions, including 14 tree species, 10 shrub species, and 33 herb species.

The plants were used to treat various ailments, including diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines and leprosy.

From the Results and Discussion:

“Ethnobotany is not new to India with over 400 different tribal and other ethnic groups. Ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants and their uses by indigenous cultures is useful not only for the conservation of traditional knowledge and biodiversity, but also to promote community health care, and might serve in drug development. The information can provide a guide for drug development, assuming that a plant that has been used by indigenous people over a long period of time may well have an allopathic application.”

Sida cordifolia
Sida cordifolia (Source: Wikimedia Commons User:J.M.Garg)

Dominant species included Acacia catechu, Quercus leucotrichophora, Adhatoda vasica, Rhus parviflora, Sida cordifolia and Vernonia anthelmintica.

With rapidly growing demand for these medicinal plants, however, most of these plant populations have been depleted. The authors recommend that attention be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in Garhwal Himalaya to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants, and that more data be collected on the use of individual species of ethnomedicinal plants to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants’ availability and to design conservation strategies to protect individual species.

Read the complete article at PubMed.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Antimalarial Plants Used in Portuguese-Speaking Countries

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A review of antimalarial plants used in traditional medicine in communities in Portuguese-speaking countries: Brazil, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola

Jefferson Rocha de A Silva; Aline de S Ramos; Marta Machado; Dominique F de Moura; Zoraima Neto; Marilene M Canto-Cavalheiro; Paula Figueiredo; Virgilio E do Rosário; Ana Claudia F Amaral; Dinora Lopes
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz
2011 Aug;106 Suppl 1:142-58
PubMed PMID: 21881769
Chromolaena odorata
Chromolaena odorata (Source: Wikimedia Commons user Ashasathees)

Researchers from the Universidade Federal do Amazonas (Brazil), Farmanguinhos (Brazil), Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal) and Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz (Brazil) compiled an extensive catalog of phytochemical studies of medicinal plants used to treat malaria in traditional medicine from the Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa: Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe.

Their analysis indicates that seven families (Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Pi-peraceae) have species commonly used in these countries to treat malaria. “The Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae families are represented by botanical species used primarily within African countries. Further, there are reports of other families of plants restricted to some countries: Angola (Annonaceae and Cochlospermaceae), Guinea-Bissau (Combretaceae and Hypencaceae) and Brazil have the most references to species belonging to the seven botanical families.”

A detailed table lists the studied species, tested parts and scientific data from vitro and in vivo research.

Read the complete article at PubMed.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Folk Medicine in Bolívar-Colombia

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Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

Harold Gómez-Estrada, Fredyc Díaz-Castillo, Luís Franco-Ospina, Jairo Mercado-Camargo, Jaime Guzmán-Ledezma, José Domingo Medina & Ricardo Gaitán-Ibarra
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
2011 Sep 22;7:27
PubMed Central: PMC3224600
Bolívar-Colombia
Bolívar-Colombia (Source: Wikimedia Commons User:Shadowxfox)

Researchers from the Universidad de Cartagena undertook a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the department of Bolívar on the Atlantic Coast of Colombia.

Based on interviews with more than a thousand participants, the authors identified 39 plant species used in traditional medicine for a variety of diseases, including Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites), Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation).

From the Background:

“Colombia accounts for approximately 10% of the world’s biodiversity and is home to about 50,000 species of plants, of which only 119 are included in the Colombian Vademecum of Medicinal Plants. The diverse topography of the Colombian territory and the country’s wide range of climates have favored the formation of varied habitats. Despite the country’s natural richness, the status of scientific knowledge on Colombian flora is still incipient in many aspects.”

Tables index the medicinal plants by name and illnesses treated.

While shedding light on the importance of medicinal plants in Bolívar, the study also helps set the stage for new research efforts for drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Plant Use of the Oromo

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Plant use in Odo-Bulu and Demaro, Bale region, Ethiopia

Rainer W Bussmann, Paul Swartzinsky, Aserat Worede & Paul Evangelista
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
2011 Sep 24;7:28
PubMed Central: PMC3196683
Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Oromia Region
Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Oromia Region (Source: Wikimedia Commons User:Golbez)

Researchers from Missouri Botanical Garden, The Murulle Foundation, Ethiopian Rift Valley Safaris and Colorado State University report on the plant use of the indigenous Oromo people in Southern Ethiopia.

The authors documented 46 species used for human medicine and 13 species used for veterinary purposes. The medicinal plants served to treat stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment, as toothbrushsticks, as anthelmintics, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles.

From the Introduction:

“Plants have been an integral part of life in many indigenous communities, and Africa is no exception. Apart from providing building materials, fodder, weapons and other commodities, plants are especially important as traditional medicines. Many tribes and cultures in Africa have an elaborated plant knowledge-base. Most of this knowledge is still entirely transferred orally within the family unit or community. Western influences have, however, led to an accelerating decline of
this tradition. For example, Western style healthcare supplied by some governments has been expanded in the last decades, but it is still often not readily available and many regions remain completely underserved. Subsequently, most rural communities still use herbal remedies as readily and cheaply available alternatives. This knowledge is however, rapidly dwindling due to desired changes towards a more Western lifestyle, and the influence of modern tourism and other agents of globalization.”

The authors interviewed 12 respondents (all male, as “access to female informants was not possible”). A comprehensive table lists all plants encountered in the region, including uses and other notes.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Traditional Pharmacopoeia of the Monpa

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Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

Nima D Namsa, Manabendra Mandal, Sumpam Tangjang & Subhash C Manda
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
2011 Oct 14;7:31
PubMed Central: PMC3206407
Arunachal Pradesh, India
Arunachal Pradesh, India (Source: CC-by-sa PlaneMad/Wikimedia)

Researchers from Tezpur University, Indian Institute of Science, Mahatma Gandhi University and Jadavpur University conducted field research with members of the indigenous Kalaktang Monpa community to document “the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for human and veterinary ailments, and those used for dietary supplements, religious purpose, local beverage, and plants used to poison fish and wild animals.”

The first author, Nima D Namsa, grew up and belonged to the Monpa community and knows the language and some of the traditional plants used by the local people.

The team documented 50 plants species used for treating human and veterinary ailments, and highlighted several of these species, including the following:

Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks…. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure ([Clerodendrum] colebrookianum), diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia), and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum)…. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of [Aconitum ferox] is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures.”

Tables detail the ethnobotanical uses of the plants documented in the study area, and compare indigenous plant use with pharmacological properties of reported medicinal plants.

From the conclusion:

“There was no written document of traditional healing knowledge and transmission to the future generation take place only through oral communication. The immediate and serious threat to the local medical practice in the study area seems to have come from the increasing influence of modernization, deforestation due to anthropogenic activities and migration of the younger generations to urban areas leaving a gap in the cultural beliefs and practices of indigenous society. However, there was a potential threat to the medicinal flora of the area as a result of the increasing trend of shifting cultivation (annual clearing of forest) and cultural changes signaling the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that the appropriate measures are taken to conserve the suitable environments required to protect the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems. More detailed ethnopharmacological investigations need to be conducted in this area particularly in regard to conservation strategies and sustainable use of medicinal plants.”

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plants Used in Beni-Suef, Upper Egypt

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Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

Sameh F AbouZid and Abdelhalim A Mohamed
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
2011 Jun 27;7:18
PubMed Central: PMC3141364

 
Researchers from Beni-Suef University interviewed local people to collect ethnobotanical data on plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Suef, a richly biodiverse area with a wide variety of plant species.

A recent study cited by the authors found that nearly a quarter of Egyptians use medicinal plants as remedies, in roughly equal numbers in urban and rural areas.

The authors identify 48 species of medicinal plants used by local people, including Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (cardiovascular); Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (immunological); Mentha piperita L. (gastrointestinal) and Pimpinella anisum L. (respiratory). A table lists all species, the plant parts used and ailments treated.

Read the complete article at PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Assessment of Anticancer & Antimalarial Properties of Apocynaceae Used in Traditional Medicine

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Wong SK, Lim YY, Abdullah NR, Nordin FJ.
Assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected Apocynaceae species.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Jan 14;11:3.

Read free full text at BioMed Central.

Investigators at Monash University Sunway Campus (Selangor, Malaysia) assessed leaf extracts of five selected species of the Apocynaceae family for antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities. The plants – which are used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat gastrointestinal ailments, fever, malaria, pain and diabetes, among other conditions – included Alstonia angustiloba (Pulai tree), Calotropis gigantea (Calotropis gigantea), Dyera costulata (jelutong), Kopsia fruticosa (shrub vinca, pink kopsia, kopsia merah, pink gardenia) and Vallaris glabra (bread flower).

The authors found that leaf extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines studied, showing “great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs.” In addition, V. glabra displayed effective activity against Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly of the Plasmodium species that cause malaria in humans.

Read free full text at BioMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Evaluation of antibacterial & anticancer activities of South African medicinal plants

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Bisi-Johnson MA, Obi CL, Hattori T, et al.
Evaluation of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of some South African medicinal plants.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Feb 17;11:14.

Free full text via BioMed Central.

Investigators from Walter Sisulu University, South Africa, evaluated antibacterial and anticancer activity of six medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhea stomach disorders: Eucomis autumnalis (autumn pineapple flower, autumn pineapple lily), Cyathula uncinulata (bohome, burweed, globe cyathula, klits, maime, rondeklits, tchimate, wolbossie), Hypoxis latifolia (broad-leaved hypoxis, igudu, ilabatheka, ilabetheka, ingcobo, inkomfe, yellow star), Lantana camara (Spanish flag, West Indian lantana, LAVA), Aloe arborescens (Krantz aloe, candelabra aloe) and Aloe striatula (hardy aloe, coral aloe).

The results indicated that E. autumnalis had a profound cytotoxic effect, and the investigators called for caution in its use. However, they found that the antibacterial activities and non-cytotoxic effects of A. arborescens and A. striatula validates their continuous usage in ethnomedicine.

Free full text via BioMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Medicinal Plants Used by Sabaots of Mt. Elgon, Kenya

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Okello SV, Nyunja RO, Netondo GW, Onyango JC.
Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009 Oct 15;7(1):1-10
Free full text via PubMed Central

Researchers from Maseno University conducted an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments by the Sabaot people in Kopsiro Division, Mt. Elgon District, Kenya. The study documented 107 plants reported to be of medicinal value in a forest region that is in danger of being completely destroyed.

From the conclusion:

“Traditional medicine in Kopsiro division offers cheap, accessible and convenient remedy that suits the traditional lifestyle of the local community in comparison to the conventional medicine. Most medicinal plant species reported in this study were found to be under threat and this calls for urgent conservation measures so as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.”

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

A Primer on Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics

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Savrikar SS, Ravishankar B.
Bhaishajya Kalpanaa – the Ayurvedic pharmaceutics – an overview.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010 Apr 3;7(3):174-84. Review.
PubMed PMID: 21461144

The authors, from Gujarat Ayurved University, present an overview of Bhaishajya Kalpanaa, the sub-discipline of Ayurvedic medicine devoted to drug formulations. They cover the historical background, basic principles, methods of preparation, and major influences on the activity of the compounds.

Drawing from the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (current version available online via the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India), the authors detail 21 drug formulations, 16 are mainly plant-based and the rest mineral- and metal-based.

Free full text is available via PubMed. Clinical trials related to Ayurvedic medicine can be found at ClinicalTrials.gov.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.