Tag Archives: indigenous people

Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used by Haudenosaunee Peoples, New York State

Share

Frey FM, Meyers R. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Nov 6;10:64.
[PubMed PMID: 21054887; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2989932.]

Observing that the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease-causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community, biologists from Colgate University explored the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) traditional medicine as a potential source of novel drugs.

The authors begin by noting that in Upstate New York, the Haudenosaunee peoples used approximately 450 plant species in traditional medicine. After identification and harvesting, they prepared aqueous extractions from 15 plant species and tested them against four bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium [Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium], Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus [Lactococcus] lactis).

From the Conclusions:

“Growing antibiotic resistance among human pathogens and new data showing that antibiotic-resistant E. coli can protect antibiotic-sensitive S. typhimurium without gene transfer, emphasize the importance of finding new antibacterial molecules. Our data suggest that investigating traditional Haudenosaunee medicinal plants may yield promising new leads. The degree of concordance between traditional use and observed antibacterial properties suggest that there may be some truth to these remedies. In particular, our results suggest that A. millefolium, [Hieracium] pilosella, [Ipomoea] pandurata, and [Sanguinaria] canadensis warrant further study, as does the previously undocumented [Hesperis] matronalis, especially in the context of S. typhimurium. Elucidating the mode of action behind these observed antibacterial properties, as well as exploring other pharmacological activities is currently underway in our lab.”

Free full text is available via PubMed and PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Cytotoxic Activity of Thai Medicinal Plants Against Human Carcinoma Cells in vitro

Share

Mahavorasirikul W, Viyanant V, Chaijaroenkul W, et al. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants against human cholangiocarcinoma, laryngeal and hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Sep 28;10:55.
[PubMed PMID: 20920194; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2956707.]

Noting that cholangiocarcinoma is a serious public health problem in Thailand with increasing incidence and mortality rates, researchers from Thammasat University investigated cytotoxic activities of crude ethanol extracts of a total of 28 plants and 5 recipes used in Thai folklore medicine against human cholangiocarcinoma (CL-6), human laryngeal (Hep-2), and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell lines in vitro.

From the Conclusions:

“Results obtained from this study indicate that 6 out of a total of 28 plants and 5 recipes (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinale, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai recipe) used in Thai folklore medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against CL-6 human cholangiocarcinoma cell line… Further investigation of all the six extracts for their cytotoxic activity against cholangiocarcinoma in hamster model is underway to fully assess the anticancer activity in vivo.”

Free full text is available via PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Plants Used to Manage HIV/AIDS Opportunistic Infections in Katima Mulilo, Namibia

Share

Chinsembu KC, Hedimbi M. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 Sep 11;6:25.
[PubMed PMID: 20831821; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2944155.]

Noting that Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia, and that many HIV-infected persons in the region use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections, biologists from the University of Namibia surveyed plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections.

They identified 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (a family of tropical trees and shrubs, 14%), Anacardiaceae (cashew or sumac family, 8%), Mimosaceae (a family of spiny woody plants, 8%), and Ebanaceae (persimmon or ebony family, 7%), used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis.

The authors note that harmonization of the use of ethnomedicines with HIV/AIDS policy “remains a sensitive and contentious issue… because traditional medicines can easily become a scapegoat for denial and inertia to roll-out ART [antiretroviral therapy] as was the case during President Thabo Mbeki’s South Africa [and that] because in many resource-poor settings in Sub-Saharan Africa, government-sponsored ART programmes discourage the use of traditional medicines, fearing that the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs may be inhibited by traditional medicines … that their interactions could lead to toxicity [or that] reliance on traditional medicines can also lead to a discontinuation of ART therapy.”

“Thus many African governments including Namibia still have contradictory attitudes towards traditional medicines for AIDS, discouraging it within ART programmes, and supporting it within their initiatives of public health and primary health care. Despite this contradictory scenario, indigenous plants and mushrooms have been embraced as potential reservoirs that may contain a large repertoire of novel anti-HIV active compounds.”

The article contains a comprehensive list of plants used to treat HIV/AIDS-related disease conditions, including scientific name, common name, local name, parts used, disease conditions treated, and mode of application. Issues of intellectual property and ecological sustainability are discussed.

Free full text is available via PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Ethnopharmacological Knowledge among Migrants in Diadema, São Paulo

Share

Garcia D, Domingues MV, Rodrigues E.
Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 Oct 29;6:29.
PubMed PMID: 21034478; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2987905. [Free full text via PubMed Central.]

Noting that an understanding of how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies, biologists at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo interviewed five migrants who described knowledge about 12 animals and 85 plants used medicinally in their places of origin. The five interviewees migrated from northeast and southeast Brazil and established themselves in Diadema in the 1940s.

From the Background:

“Cultural mixing mediated by the migration of people around the world has generated increasing interest in recent years within the field of ethnopharmacology. Medicinal plants have been used by human societies throughout history, also across geographical barriers. The continuous use of certain plants and animals for medicinal purposes over time reflects their potential therapeutic value. Such substances become even more promising when they are persistently used by migrating human groups despite the considerable distances travelled and the consequent exposure to different cultures and vegetal resources.”

Seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., [Artemisia camphorata Vill.], Equisetum arvensis L. [sic – Equisetum arvense?], Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory and have not yet been studied by pharmacologists.

The authors acknowledge that their work raises significant issues related to property rights, as the dynamic use of natural resources presents particularly varied influences: “The interviewed migrants had passed through several Brazilian cities and were exposed to distinct vegetation and cultures. In this migration, they have passed on and incorporated knowledge in an intensive exchange where formulas and uses are mixed and re-invented as a result of contact between cultures.”

Free full text available via PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Survey of Plants Used in Northern Peru for Reproductive Problems and Female Health

Share

Bussmann RW, Glenn A.
Medicinal plants used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems and female health.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 Nov 1;6:30.
PubMed PMID: 21040536; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2984435. [Free full text via PubMed Central.]

Botanists from the William L. Brown Center at the Missouri Botanical Garden documented a total of 105 plant species identified as herbal remedies for reproductive problems in Northern Peru. Only a third of the plants have previously been studied for their medicinal properties.

From the Background:

“Northern Peru is believed to be the center of the Central Andean Health Axis, and traditional medicinal practices in this region remain an important component of everyday life. [Traditional Medicine] is also gaining acceptance by national governments and health providers. Peru’s National Program in Complementary Medicine and the Pan American Health Organization recently compared Complementary Medicine to allopathic medicine in clinics and hospitals operating within the Peruvian Social Security System. The results showed that the cost of using Traditional Medicine was less than the cost of Western therapy. In addition, for each of the criteria evaluated – clinical efficacy, user satisfaction, and future risk reduction – Traditional Medicine’s efficacy was higher than that of conventional treatments, including fewer side effects, higher perception of efficacy by both the patients and the clinics, and a 53-63% higher cost efficiency of Traditional Medicine over that of conventional treatments for the selected conditions. According to [the World Health Organization], the sustainable cultivation and harvesting of medicinal species is one of the most important challenges for the next few years.”

The authors provide an overview on medicinal plant species employed in Northern Peru in traditional remedies for reproductive problems and female health, comparing this use to the western scientific evidence regarding their efficacy. Most of the species identified were Asteraceae (aster, daisy, or sunflower family, 9.52%), followed by Lamiaceae (mint family) and Fabaceae (legume family) (8.57% and 6.67%).

A comprehensive table lists species used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems.

Free full text is available via PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Human-Animal Relationships in Tamang Communities of Central Nepal

Share

Lohani U. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 Nov 4;6:31.
PubMed PMID: 21050449; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2987906. [Free Full Text via PubMed Central.]

Researchers at Tribhuvan University (Kathmandu, Nepal) studied relationships of the Tamang people of central mountainous region of Nepal with 41 animal genera belonging to 28 families, documenting uses in several categories including food and medicinal, magico-religious, weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos.

From the paper:

“The Tamangs harbor a rich body of ethnozoological knowledge because of an intimate relationship over a long period of time. Animals are integral to their culture, religion, magico-religion and traditional pharmacopoeia. In other words, Tamang-animal relationship can be observed both at material and spiritual levels….

“Commercial utilization of some of the new drugs of animal origin could raise poor socioeconomic status of the communities from where the knowledge originated. Priorities should be given to research on such animals. Sustainable use of some of the endangered animals is possible only when their number increases. Possibilities of in-situ conservation of such animals need to be explored. Both systems of knowledge such as traditional and modern should be integrated for the formulation of appropriate policy regarding conservation of such animals.”

Free full text is available via PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Herbal Mixtures in Traditional Medicine in Northern Peru

Share

Bussmann RW, Glenn A, Meyer K, et al. Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 Mar 14;6:10.
PubMed PMID: 20226092; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2848642.
[Free full text via PubMed Central.]

Noting with the World Health Organization that “the sustainable cultivation and harvesting of medicinal species is one of the most important challenges for the next few years,” researchers from Missouri Botanical Garden undertook a detailed survey of herbal mixtures employed by traditional practitioners (curanderos) in Northern Peru and the specific applications they are used for, in order to provide a baseline for more in-depth studies on efficacy and safety, as well as possible applications.

Researchers collected plants in the field, in markets, and at the homes of curanderos. In accordance with Peru’s rights under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the identification of the plant material was conducted entirely in Peru and no plant material was exported.

The investigation yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions, which were classified under the curandero’s terminology. Nearly a third of the afflictions treated with traditional herbal mixtures were psychosomatic, followed by respiratory illnesses, female issues, kidney problems and heart problems.

Nearly 65% of the medicinal plants used in the region were applied in mixtures, leading the researchers to speculate this might help explain why traditional one-plant, one single-compound based drug
discovery efforts have yielded very little results, and why so many plant species that have been documented for a certain use are found inefficient or toxic in clinical trials.

From the Conclusions:

“Peruvian curanderos appear to employ very specific guidelines in the preparation of these cocktails, and seem to have a clear understanding of disease concepts when they diagnose a patient, which in turn leads them to often apply specific mixtures for specific conditions. There seems to be a widespread exchange of knowledge about mixtures for treatment of bodily diseases, while mixtures for spiritual, nervous system and psychosomatic disorders appear to be more closely guarded by the individual healers.”

The full text is available via PubMed Central.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Pain in remote Andean communities–learning from Quichua experience

Share

Incayawar M, Saucier JF. Pain in remote Andean communities–learning from Quichua (Inca) experience. Rural Remote Health. 2010 Jan-Mar;10(1):1379. Epub 2010 Jul 15. PubMed PMID: 20635837. [Free full text]

Researchers from the Institute for the Study of Quichua Culture and Health, Otavalo, Ecuador and Department of Psychiatry, Université de Montréal undertook a study to explore how Quichuas in the Andes perceive, describe, and cope with pain and reveal highly sophisticated perspectives, including:

The role of strong emotional experiences in the origin of psychological or physical illnesses, including pain, is a salient feature, and is probably an ethos of the Quichua people of the Andes. There is strong agreement among them that pain can lead to depression, anxiety, irritability, fearfulness, tiredness, sleep disturbances, poor appetite, a range of serious diseases, and even death.

A useful benchmark for future study.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

Share

Shahid S, Bleam R, Bessarab D, Thompson SC. “If you don’t believe it, it won’t help you”: use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 Jun 23;6:18. PubMed PMID: 20569478; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2902429. [Free full text via PubMed Central]

Researchers at the Centre for International Health, Curtin University undertook a qualitative study exploring Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia, “providing an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia.”

The authors note that Aboriginal Australians with cancer are twice as likely to die from the disease than non-Aboriginal Australians.

From the Discussion and Conclusions:

Bush medicine has spiritual significance for Aboriginal people as it is natural, comes from the land, connects to identity and spirituality and plays an important role in people’s health and wellbeing. Bush medicine is also connected to the holistic world view in such a way that the interplay between the physical, emotional, social and spiritual aspects is crucial in attaining wellbeing. Whereas hospitals and Western medical systems are representative of the dominant society reminding Aboriginal people of their loss of cultural knowledge, access to the traditional healing system, bush medicine and other healing processes repairs some of the damage inflicted by colonisation. The opportunity to access traditional knowledge through other groups who have retained this knowledge can be reassuring for Aboriginal people with cancer.

The information on my blog is not intended as a substitute for medical professional help or advice but is to be used only as an aid in understanding current medical knowledge. A physician should always be consulted for any health problem or medical condition.

Berlinale Forum 2011 – Territoire perdu | Lost Land

Share

Territoire perdu | Lost Land
Director: Pierre-Yves Vandeweerd
France, Belgium 2011
Arabic
Forum

A 2,400 km wall cuts across the western Sahara, built by Morocco to contain the Sahrawi – once nomads, now condemned to immobility. More than a hundred thousand people who have been forgotten. The destruction of millennia of indigenous knowledge in a generation.

Pierre-Yves Vandeweerd’s revelatory documentary opens with camels behind a fence. Herodotus wrote of these camels and their keepers. In the 40 years that the Sahrawi have been living in camps, their nomadic knowledge of the desert has disappeared except in a few surviving old people.

Chased off their land when Morocco demanded possession of the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony, the Sahrawi refugees have been forgotten by the world. The last chapter in a trilogy that began with Le Cercle des noyés and Les Dormants, Territoire perdu literally brings them back to light.

Read the Forum essay.