Pavese JM, Farmer RL, Bergan RC. Inhibition of cancer cell invasion and metastasis by genistein.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2010 Sep;29(3):465-82. Review.
PubMed PMID: 20730632; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2933845.
[Free full text via PubMed Central.]
Working under grants from the US National Institutes of Health, researchers from Northwestern University reviewed the structural, pharmacologic, and biological characteristics of genistein (a small, biologically active flavonoid found in high amounts in soy) relevant to its ability to inhibit metastasis of various cancer types, with a focus on genistein’s ability to regulate steps of the metastatic cascade, including cell proliferation, cell detachment, cell migration, and cell invasion. The authors also review preclinical and early clinical models of research.
The authors find that genistein represents both a tool for understanding cancer development and a promising candidate for evaluation as an inhibitor of metastasis in a variety of cancer types.
From the Conclusion:
“At concentrations of genistein near the micromolar range, which have been achieved in prospective phase I studies, genistein exhibits significant inhibition of tumor growth. This inhibition of proliferation has been linked to genistein’s interaction with a variety of different protein classes, including cell cycle regulators, proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins, and the Akt/NF-κB family of proteins. Additional preclinical studies have indicated that inhibition of the later steps of the metastatic cascade may be an important biological effect of genistein at low nanomolar concentrations, which are achieved through dietary consumption. Genistein has been shown to exert inhibitory effects on targets that are involved in almost every step of the metastatic cascade, including FAK, integrins, TGF-β signaling molecules, and MMPs, which together are critical to the processes of cell adhesion and invasion. Early positive clinical trial studies have corroborated these preclinical findings, as subjects administered genistein show decreased markers of advanced metastatic disease, such as MMP-2 and PSA. These preliminary evaluations will need to be pursued by larger confirmatory prospective clinical studies, but the findings from ongoing trials have already provided critical information about the clinical importance of these mechanisms.”
The full text is available via PubMed Central.
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